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Before-During-After Reading Strategies

Before (Pre-Reading)

During (Reading & ReReading)

After (Post Reading)

Reading involves connecting new text to that which is already understood (prior knowledge). BDA strategies are used to get students to activate existing knowledge, thereby creating a mental framework to which new text, terms, ideas, etc. can be attached. This mental framework is begun before reading even begins, strengthened as students interact with the text during the reading, and reflected upon after reading as students incorporate what they have just read into their core knowledge. Key processes used throughout BDAs are writing , conversation and reading.

Before-During-After (BDA) Reading Strategies (PDF)

A note about writing: There are five (5) types of writing that need to be understood in the context of these BDA strategies. They are based on the work of Dr. John Collins at the Center for Effective Communication, 320 Main Street, P.O. Box 957, West Newbury, MA 01985.

Type 1: Capture Ideas –there is no correct answer; or, if there is a correct answer, it's okay to guess. Students compose just one draft, which is NOT graded or edited; all that matters is length, focus, and that it is read aloud to someone.

Type 2: Respond Correctly – this writing makes a point and has a correct answer or correct content, e.g., a short answer to a quiz. Again, students compose just one draft, which is graded for content only.

Most of the Before (B) strategies employ Type 1 or 2 Writing.

Type 3: Edit for Focus Correction Areas (FCAs) – this writing is read aloud and reviewed by the author using guiding questions: Does it complete the assignment? Is it easy to read? Does it fulfill the focus correction areas for content and writing skills (the only elements being graded this time)? Again, just one draft.

Type 4: Peer Edit for Focus Correction Areas (FCAs) – this writing is Type 3 writing that has been read aloud and reviewed by another person. It leads to the completion of a second draft.

Type 5: Publish – this is writing that is publishable and could go outside the classroom without explanation or qualification. It involves multiple drafts.

Other Organizers

SKILLS JOURNAL: Divide paper into three columns: date, skills journal entry, & new learning (for corrections). The teacher dictates sentence and students do their best to write it correctly. Then they get one minute to 'cheat' = talk over with a friend. The correct sentence is written on the board/overhead, and students make corrections in third column.

DOCUMENT REVIEW: Put up student's work on overhead with permission; choose a middle one - (not a model). First, teacher and students must give positive feedback and then revise the paper using the FCA (focus correction skills; done by teacher on an overhead (becomes a model for revising process).

PEER REVISING: The author and a partner sit side by side. The non-author reads the author's paper orally and either partner (or both) can make correction marks. This method capitalizes on the oral reading, which highlights mistakes, problems with sentence construction, subject-verb agreement, etc., more effectively than silent rereading. The partner is a tool, while the author maintains responsibility for making revisions.


For additional information, please contact:

Pamela M. Kolega | Refugee Program Officer
Pennsylvania Department of Education - Bureau of Curriculum, Assessment and Instruction
333 Market Street | Harrisburg, PA 17126-0333
Phone: 717.265.8964 | Fax: 717.783.4392
pkolega@pa.gov | www.education.state.pa.us