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Energy Related Holdings at the Pennsylvania State Archives

The largest categories of energy-related archival holdings at the State Archives are concerned with coal, oil, manufactured and natural gas (confined mostly to regulating gas companies), electric transmission lines (confined mostly to opposition to new power lines), nuclear fission (confined mostly to the Three Mile Island accident), steam (confined mostly to regulating steam utilities), and transportation (confined mostly to material on coal powered, diesel powered, and electric powered locomotives). There is also a large amount of material dealing with the environmental impact of mining, processing, and burning fossil fuels. While 2009 is the 150 th Anniversary of Edwin L. Drake’s first commercially successful oil well at Titusville, Pennsylvania, the state is also distinguished as a world leader in the mining of both anthracite and bituminous coal, a landscape once dominated by large water-powered gristmills and lumber mills, large hydroelectric power stations such as Safe Harbor Dam, and the home of the nation’s first commercial nuclear power plant that went online at Shippingport, Pennsylvania in 1957. Today, oil is once again being drilled on a commercial scale in northern Pennsylvania , coal gasification and liquefaction is providing a new avenue for employing this traditional fossil fuel, and wind farms, solar and geothermal heated homes, and ethanol plants are being constructed across the state. While the introduction of many of these newer technologies are not yet reflected in holdings at the State Archives, newer accessions of governor’s papers and recent legislation passed by the general assembly will undoubtedly be among the first archival records to document these trends. The following is a summary listing of materials held by the Pennsylvania State Archives that will prove of value in researching the history of energy production and energy usage in Pennsylvania :


Record Groups

Record Group 1: Records of the Department of Agriculture

The Department of Agriculture was created in 1895 to encourage the development of agriculture, horticulture, forestry and related industries. A State Board of Agriculture, which had been established in 1876 to investigate improvements in agriculture, continued to function along with the Department in an advisory capacity. Legislation passed in 1919 and 1923 abolished the State Board of Agriculture, the Agricultural Commission and the Livestock Sanitary Board and consolidated regulatory activities pertaining to agriculture within the Department. Functions relating to forestry were transferred to the Department of Forestry in 1901. The Department of Agriculture is responsible for promoting the efficient marketing of farm products and dealing with appropriate investigatory and service problems

Among the Department of Agriculture records, those relating to the Farm Census are useful in documenting the number of farms possessing electricity and powered machinery. The Farm Census County Summaries, 1924-1927 (1 box) {series #1.11} contain the annual assessment report summaries for the Triennial Farm Census. Information provided for each township and borough includes the number of animals including horses and mules used to provide muscle power; equipment such as tractors, trucks, and automobiles; whether the farm is equipped with a radio; and whether each farm was equipped with electricity by either individual plant or a central station. The 1927 census also reveals whether each farm was equipped with running water in the kitchen, a furnace heating system, milking machines, gas engines and telephones. The Farm Census Returns, 1924, 1927 (58 boxes) {series #1.12} were completed by local assessors for each borough or township and reveal the number of horses and mules used for muscle power, the presence of tractors, trucks, and automobiles; whether the farm was equipped with a radio; and whether the farm was equipped with electricity by either an individual plant or a central station. The 1927 census also reveals if the farm had running water in the kitchen, a furnace heating system, milking machines, gas engines and telephones. The Farm Census Summary Lists, 1924-1928 (10 folders) {series #1.13} were compiled from the data gathered during the Triennial Farm Census and reveal the number of motor trucks on farms in each county. Most of the summary lists include the names of individual farmers and their addresses.

Record Group 6: Records of the Department of Forests and Waters

The Department of Forests and Waters was created in 1923 to consolidate the functions of the Department of Forestry, the Water Supply Commission, and the Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey. An outgrowth of the Office of Forest Commissioner established in the Department of Agriculture in 1895, the Department was responsible for acquiring and managing state forest lands, developing state parks, improving waterways, protecting Commonwealth's water supply, supervising flood control projects, and protecting state and private forest lands. In 1937 the newly created Navigation Commission for the Delaware River and Its Navigable Tributaries was also placed under the Department where it remained until transferred to the Department of Transportation in 1970. The Department of Forests and Waters was absorbed by the Department of Environmental Resources in 1971.

Under Act 18 of 1995, the Department of Environmental Resources was split into the Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.  Related types of records will be found in the Records of the Game Commission, (RG-39), Records of the Navigation Commission for the Delaware River and Its Navigable Tributaries (RG-41), Records of the Department of Environmental Resources (RG-43), Records of the Department of Mines and Mineral Industries (RG-45), Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission (RG-46), Records of the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (RG-65), Records of the Department of Environmental Protection (RG-66), Records of the Environmental Hearing Board (RG-67), Records of the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency (RG-69) and the Records of the Fish and Boat Commission (RG-72).

The Publications (Includes “ Forest Leaves” and “Service Letter”), 1923-1935. (24 folders) {series #6.6} include Service Letters and copies of the magazine Forest Leaves published by the Pennsylvania Forestry Association.  The Service Letters are typed newsletters that were issued by the Department of Forests and Waters and contain minutes of weekly Service Meetings and public information concerning various departmental programs.  Among these are articles written by District Foresters concerning such topics as white pine weevils, the number of trees planted in each county, oil and gas development in the northern Appalachian fields, and the use of fine sized anthracite for making briquettes. Forest Leaves (now called Pennsylvania Forests ) is an illustrated magazine published bimonthly by the Pennsylvania Forestry Association, a private forest advocacy organization founded in 1886. The Survey Books of the Delaware Division Canal, 1868 (2 volumes) {series #6.18} contain highly detailed tinted maps drawn from surveys conducted in April and May of 1868 for the Delaware Division Canal Company (owners) and the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company (lessees) under the direction of Civil Engineer Thomas F. McNair.  The maps depict fine detail of the canal together with the names of property owners.

There are also numerous Photographs and Negatives, [ca. 1890-1971]. (16 cartons, 1 box, 36 drawers) {series #6.20}, including glass plate negatives, arranged numerically and corresponding to contact prints that are arranged alphabetically by subject.  These prints are mounted on heavy boards that have both captions and the negative number. This series contains approximately 8,000 photographic prints and over 2,700 matching negatives created by the staff of the Department of Forests and Waters for the purpose of education and publicity.  Many of the early photographs were taken by forest rangers, some of who later became high-ranking agency officials such as Joseph Illick, George Wirt, and Henry Clepper.  Many later images from the 1930s and 1940s were by staff photographers such as David S. Nace.  Integrated into the series are private photograph collections of Pennsylvania Forester Joseph T. Rothrock and Galeton commercial photographer William T. Clarke.  Some of these private photographs predate the Division of Forestry and many of Rothrock’s photographs were featured in Forest Leaves (now Pennsylvania Forests , the journal of the Pennsylvania Forestry Association). 

Also present are Reports, 1930, 1936, 1942. (2 folders, 1 volume) {series #6.25} that provide information on the relationship between the Delaware Division Canal and flooding in the Delaware River, the Turtle Creek floods of 1930, and a 1936 Special Survey entitled “Comprehensive Studies and Analyses, Coal and sand and Gravel Dredging Industries and Recommending Legislation Providing for Royalties for Coal and Sand and Gravel Recovered from Beds of State-Owned Waters.” The Schuylkill Canal Lockhouse Photographs, 1948, 1951 (1 box) {#6.48} include photographic prints of Schuylkill Canal lock houses as well as various dredging vessels. The images were produced in conjunction with the Schuylkill River Project for the construction of the New Kearnsville Impounding Dam and were given to the Water Power and Resources Board, the state agency designated to carry out the project. The Stream Flow Record Books, 1922-1940. (21 volumes) {series #6.26} running from October 1 through September 30 for each year provide information on how the streams were measured, flood warning, and precipitation levels.  For each site the information given is location, drainage area, date span for which records are available, type of gage, how measurements were made, a description of the channel and control measures, extremes of discharge, presence of ice, and accuracy of readings.  Readings include the daily mean gage height in feet, the daily discharge in second-feet. The Water Company Charter Books, 1905-1932. (9 volumes) {series #6.27} are Acceptance books, approval books, and miscellaneous agreements of mergers, applications, petitions, and acceptance by companies of conditions imposed in the approval of charters granted to water companies by the Water and Power Resources Board.

The Record of Laws and Procedures Relating to Water and Water Power Companies, 1919. (1 volume) {series #6.42} is a copy of the Water Supply Commission Law Relating to Water and Power Companies with an Appendix Containing the Law Relating to the Water Supply Commission, Rules of Procedure, and Forms compiled by the Water Supply Commission of Pennsylvania, 1909 & revised by the Legislative Reference Bureau, 1919. The Water Resources Inventory Including Reports, Correspondence, Photographs and Maps, 1913-1920.   (14 cartons) {series #6.45} for the Water Resources Inventory Report  are concerned with establishing a system for treatment of Pennsylvania's water resources under the State Inventory Act passed on July 25, 1913. The measure directed the Water Supply Commission to "make a complete inventory of all the water resources of the Commonwealth and collect all pertinent data, facts, and information in connection therewith; and to classify, tabulate, record and preserve the same; and, upon the basis thereof to determine the points at which reservoirs may be constructed for the purpose of minimizing floods, of storing and conserving water for power, and other utilization and distribution of water and water power, of increasing the low water flow of rivers and streams for the purpose of navigation; and, generally, to devise all possible ways and means to conserve and develop the water supply and water resources of the Commonwealth, for the use of the people thereof."  The result was a ten-part Water Resources Inventory Report published in 1916.  The report includes sections entitled "Turtle Creek Investigation," "Gazetteer of Streams," "Gazetteer of Lakes and Ponds," "Precipitation" "Water Supply," "Water Power," "Floods," "Navigation," and " Culm in the Streams of the Anthracite Region."  Among these are such items as original field notebooks and accompanying indexes for the Turtle Creek Valley Survey from the Monongahela River to Pittsburgh in 1914.  

Record Group 10: Records of the Office of Governor

The records of Governor Robert P. Casey probably contain material related to the creation of the Energy Office during his administration.  Casey was born in 1932 in Jackson Heights , New York and graduated from Holy Cross in 1953 and from Washington University Law School in 1956. After working at law firms in Washington , D.C. and Scranton , he commenced his political career by representing Lackawanna County in the Pennsylvania Senate and as a delegate at the 1967 Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention. After three unsuccessful campaign runs for the office of governor of Pennsylvania , Casey was elected governor in 1986 on the Democratic ticket. Casey's top priorities during his two terms included revitalizing the economy of the state, creating new jobs, and restructuring state health care. He helped develop a number of recreational sites in Lackawanna County , such as Lackawanna County Stadium and the Steamtown Mall and also created a state Energy Office. For additional materials on Casey’s tenure as governor see also Record Group 63, Records of the Energy Office , and Manuscript Group 406, the Robert P. Casey Collection.

Also found in this record group are the Works Progress Administration Bituminous Coal and Coal Mining Maps, 1934-1936. (3 microfilm rolls) {series #10.60} that are Quadrangle maps of bituminous coal areas drafted by the Works Progress Administration. Each map is drawn on a scale of one inch per mile. The maps provide the WPA project number and the name of the geographic area represented in the map. The legend for the map provides information concerning active and abandoned oil wells, active and abandoned gas wells, dry holes, shafts, barrier pillars, crop lines, coal contours, drift and slope openings, county lines, township lines, and borough lines.

Record Group 11: Records of the Department of Health

The Department of Health was created by the Act of April 27, 1905 (P.L. 312) to replace the State Board of Health and Vital Statistics that was originally established in 1885. The Department has the authority to enforce all statutes pertaining to public health and the rules and regulations passed by Pennsylvania 's Advisory Health Board. In addition to the Secretary of Health, the Advisory Health Board is composed of eleven members appointed by the Governor and is charged with establishing rules and regulations for the prevention of disease, protection of lives and health, and with providing health services to counties and other political subdivisions.

In addition to enforcing statutes and regulations pertaining to public health matters, the Department works to prevent and suppress outbreaks of disease, and to ensure high quality health care at a reasonable cost by coordinating a comprehensive state-wide health program. Over the years, the responsibilities of specific bureaus and divisions within the Department of Health have been shifted, reorganized, or transferred to other Departments. Related materials will be found in the Records of the Department of Environmental Resources (RG-43), Records of the Department of Education (RG-22) and Records of the Department of Public Welfare (RG-23).

The Civil Works Project Administration Records, 1933-1938 (7 folders) {series #11.33} include a manual and specific reports concerned with the Abandoned Mine Project for the Civil Works Projects, Federal Security Agency , and the United States Public Health Service. The "Manual of Policy, Organization and Uniform Practice for Sealing Abandoned Coal Mines" provides information on construction methods, engineering and survey records, a report on purchases and payroll and a report on mine sealing in Pennsylvania that contains maps and charts documenting abandoned mines, and reduction of acid load after mine closures. Also included is another Civil Works Project report on community sanitation throughout Pennsylvania . This includes photographs of unsanitary conditions in company housing and the "pits" and latrines built for the project.

The Reports and Correspondence Relating to Floods, 1936-1937 (2 folders) {series #11.34} include several papers delivered by Chief Engineer W.L. Stevenson and Assistant Chief Engineer H.E. Moses at national conventions of the American Water Works Association, American Society for Civil Engineers and New England Waterworks concerning public sanitation problems arising during the floods of 1936 and 1937. Also included is a printed leather bound volume published by the Pennsylvania Water and Power Company concerning ice jams and floods that occurred at Holtwood and the Safe Harbor Power Plants. There are also several papers on flooding that occurred in
Kentucky and West Virginia and an abstract of telegrams relating to post flood conditions in Pennsylvania in March 1936. Related materials can be found in the records of the Department of Public Welfare's State Emergency Relief Board, 1932-1937 (series #23.354-series #23.359).

Record Group 12: Records of the Department of Highways

Understanding the evolution of transportation networks is essential to understanding both the development of energy resources in Pennsylvania as well as evolving patterns of energy usage.   A State Highway Department was created in 1903 to cooperate with the Commonwealth's political subdivisions in the improvement and maintenance of highways. Initially the Department served as a disbursing agency and was primarily responsible for administering state grants to local communities. Legislation passed in 1911 reorganized the Highway Department, provided for a system of highways to be maintained solely by the state, and for a highway network financed on both the state and local level. The Department of Highways, as it was officially designated under the Administrative Code of 1923, was given exclusive authority and jurisdiction over state highways, and general supervisory powers over all roads financed in whole or in part by state funds. Though the licensing of motor vehicles had been made a responsibility of the Department, in 1929 this function was transferred to the Department of Revenue. The Department of Highways was abolished in 1970 and replaced by the Department of Transportation.

This record group is rich in photographs that only incidentally depict early power lines, dams, mining operations, and other facilities connected in some way with energy production. The Applications File, [ca. 1907-1910]. (892 glass slides and film negatives and 5 volumes) {series #12.25} was  under the Highway Act of 1905 that enabled county officials to apply to the state for assistance in repairing and rebuilding roads and the applications to the state were accompanied by these photographs. The photographs depict the roads prior to, during, and after improvements were made and also road building equipment. An accompanying log book provides the date, location and other pertinent information on the subject of the photograph for each numerical entry. The Lantern Slide File, [ca. 1907-1930]. (Approximately 1,400 lantern slides] {series #12.26} made from images contained in the Application File,[ca. 1907-1910] {series #12.25} the Photographic Unit's File of Mounted and Unmounted Prints, [ca. 1913-1932] {series #12.12}, and other sources. Subjects include road construction improvements, road construction equipment, and related types of images. The Main File of Black and White Prints and Negatives, [ca. 1924-1956]. (61 boxes, 40 drawers) {series #12.10} i nclude ore than 37,000 negatives, of which most are 8x10s, with matching contact prints for many but not all items. The prints are mounted on cards providing such descriptive information as negative number, subject, location, and name of photographer. Six log books list the negatives numerically and provide similar descriptive information. After the abolishment of the Department of Highways, this series was continued by the Department of General Services' Commonwealth Media Services Bureau.

The Photographic Unit's Construction File, 1938-1961. (8 drawers) {series #12.11} include ore than 2,500 negatives of highway construction projects concentrated primarily in Allegheny and
Philadelphia Counties during the period 1944-1960. Some negatives will also be found for highway construction projects in Armstrong, Beaver, Bedford, Berks, Bucks, Butler, Cambria, Carbon, Chester, Clearfield, Columbia, Cumberland, Dauphin, Delaware, Erie, Fayette, Franklin, Huntingdon, Indiana, Jefferson, Lackawanna, Lancaster, Lawrence, Lebanon, Lehigh, Lycoming, Montgomery, Northampton, Northumberland, and Perry Counties. The Photographic Unit's File of Mounted and Unmounted Prints, [ca. 1913-1932] (17 boxes) {series #12.12} formerly known as "The 5x7 File," contains approximately 11,000 contact prints made from glass and film negatives. This file was created following the reorganization of the Department of Highways in 1911 and only a few images on glass from this file have survived while a large number of the nitrate-based negatives have either deteriorated or been destroyed. The prints are arranged by negative number and are mounted on a card containing descriptive information but not all prints are present. Two accompanying log books give the negative number, subject, date, name of photographer, and other descriptive information. A card file subject index arranged by county is also present. For related and some duplicate images see also the Lantern Slide File, [ca.1907-1930] {series #12.26} and the Applications File, [ca. 1907-1910] {series #12.25} .

Record Group 13: Records of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission

Created in 1945 to consolidate the functions of the Pennsylvania Historical Commission, the State Museum and the State Archives, the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission is responsible for preserving and interpreting the Commonwealth's historic heritage. The Commission administers the state archival and records management program and numerous museums and historical sites. The Commission also assists local historical societies and governmental agencies in all matters regarding historical preservation, conducts research and publication programs to promote Pennsylvania history, and manages the State Records Center . The Commission operates through its Bureau of Archives and History, Bureau of Museums, Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties, and Bureau of Historic Preservation.

Some of the records in this record group relate to administrative activities of the Commission’s historic sites that include Drake Well Museum and the Anthracite Museum complex that are charged with interpreting the history of fossil fuel production in Pennsylvania. There are also extensive materials held by the State Archives relating to transportation in Pennsylvania that may incidentally shed light on energy usage. These include extensive holdings relating to the manufacture and operation of railroads in the state that employed locomotives powered by coal, diesel, and electrical means. The Penn Central Railroad Records Appraisal and Disposition Project Files, 1981-1987. (2 boxes) {#13.42} contains Hagley Museum and Library Steering Committee minutes, articles, pamphlets, reports, correspondence, deposit agreements, and related records of the Penn Central Railroad Records Appraisal and Disposition Project. In 1968 the Pennsylvania Railroad Company (1846-1968) merged with the New York Central Railroad Company (1853-1968) to form the Penn Central Transportation Company (1968-1978). As a condition of the merger, the new company was also required to absorb the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company (1872-1968). In 1971 the federal National Railroad Passenger Corporation (AMTRAK) was formed to ensure the continuity of long distance passenger service and in 1973 the United States Congress also created the United States Railway Association to engineer a reorganization of Penn Central in order to protect the public interest. This resulted in the formation of the Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail) on April 1, 1976 to take over the viable portions of Penn Central and five smaller bankrupt northeastern rail lines. What remained of Penn Central was then reorganized as the Penn Central Corporation to manage the remaining non-rail properties and investments.

In 1976 the Hagley Museum and Library obtained a grant to appraise the records of the Erie & Lackawanna Railroad, the Lehigh Valley Railroad; the Central Railroad of New Jersey, the Reading Railroad, and the Lehigh & Hudson River Railroad and the majority of these records subsequently were placed with local archives. In 1982, Michael H. Nash, curator and head of manuscripts at Hagley, began work on the Penn Central Railroad records then stored in seven decaying warehouses located near the railroad tracks on

Merion Avenue
in West Philadelphia . A $168,000 National Historical Publications and Records Commission grant to the Eleutherian Mills Historical Library made it possible for Nash and his colleagues to embark upon a two-year project to appraise and divide the 360,000 linear feet of records belonging to the Pennsylvania and New York Central Railroads. Under agreements with Penn Central Corporation, by 1985 the records deemed to have permanent archival value were being parceled out to various institutions. These included the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Bentley Historical Library at University of Michigan, Urban Archives at Temple University, Ohio Historical Society, New York Public Library, Pattee Library at The Pennsylvania State University, Baker Library at Harvard University, New Jersey State Archives, and the Hagley Museum and Library.

This series contains the Final Consortium Proposal for Arrangement and Description (May 13, 1985) and the Final Report (1987). Included is a copy of the Penn Central Corporation 1981 annual report, newspaper clippings describing the research project to preserve the records, and a copy of the grant proposal submitted by Michael H. Nash to the National Endowment for the Humanities in 1987. Reports include "Documenting Strategy and Structure: Appraising the Penn Central Archive" by Christopher T. Baer (August 30, 1986), "Report on Activities, May-October, 1986" to the Steering Committee of the Hagley Museum and Library by Christopher T. Baer (October 28, 1986), and the inventory of records transferred to the Pennsylvania State Archives. Correspondence (1981-1986) consists primarily of exchanges between Hagley Museum and Library Project Director Michael Nash and Appraisal Archivist Christopher Baer with representatives of the various archives that were recipients of the records.

The Penn Central Collection [ca. 1835-1938] {Manuscript Group 286} contains the Penn Central records transferred to the Pennsylvania State Archives. These are on deposit for 20 years with an automatic 20-year extension in the absence of a termination notice received six months prior to the end of the initial 20-year period. These are available for research purposes except for the personnel files that are closed until 25 years after the death of the employee. Copyright on all of these deposited records remains with the Penn Central Corporation. Any person seeking to quote extensively or to publish a reproduction of any page of the documents must secure written permission from the Penn Central Corporation.

Record Group 14: Records of the Department of Internal Affairs

The Office of the Secretary of Internal Affairs was created by the Constitution of 1874. Under the Constitution and subsequent legislation, the Secretary's Department was assigned all the duties of the Surveyor General, as well as duties involving the supervision of the activities of business organizations and charitable institutions, and responsibility for establishing a Bureau of Industrial Statistics that later became part of the Department of Commerce. The Department also included a Bureau of Mines that was abolished upon the creation of the Department of Mines in 1903. The Department of Internal Affairs contained five major bureaus at the time of its abolition in 1968 that were transferred to other agencies. The Justice Department received the Bureau of Standard Weights and Measures, while the Bureau of Statistics became part of the Department of Commerce. The Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey was initially transferred to the State Planning Board, and later to the Department of Environmental Resources in 1971. The Bureau of Land Records became part of the Department of Community Affairs, which had also received the Bureau of Municipal Affairs from Internal Affairs in 1967.

The Annual Census Reports of Manufactured, Mixed, and Natural Gas Companies, 1956-1965.  (1 carton) {series #14.5} that were required to be filed by manufactured, mixed and natural gas companies with the Department of Internal Affairs under the provisions of the Act of April 20, 1921 (P.L. 193) provide such information as date report was filed, type of gas supplied, name and address of company, names of all counties served by company, names and addresses of any other utilities from which gas was purchased and the volume purchased for each, total amount of gas in storage on the first and last day of preceding year, total volume of all underground storage areas, total volume of all tank storage areas, total volume of any other storage areas, name and volume of each individual storage area, area in acres of each individual storage area, revenue and sales for preceding year, revenue and expenses for preceding year, average employment and total wages paid for preceding year, volume of water intake from other than public water systems in Pennsylvania, and the name and address of the company treasurer. 

The Annual Census Reports of Motor Bus and Electric Transportation Carriers, 1957-1965.  (1 carton) {series #14.6} includes balance sheets filed with the Department of Internal Affairs by common carriers of motor bus and electric railway transportation.  Information provided is name and address of carrier, date of incorporation, assets, liabilities, fixed capital, cost of fixed capital, fund assets, property abandoned, proprietorship (for individuals and partnerships), funded debt, judgments, reserve and depreciation, depreciation rule, reserves, comparative income statement, surplus, profit and loss, operating revenues, operating expenses, rent for lease of property, insurance, motor vehicles employed in bus and taxicab service, summary of vehicles employed in each service, and operating statistics.

The Annual Reports of Manufactured Gas Companies, 1931-1936, 1939-1955.  (3 cartons) {series #14.10} submitted to the Department of Internal Affairs by manufactured gas companies provide such information as date of report, name and address of home office, amount of capital invested in Pennsylvania, names and addresses of officers, rate schedule, estimated population in area served, average number of male and female employees, total wages and salaries paid to male and female employees, and a breakdown of natural gas production by county.  A breakdown is provided for the volume and value of each type of gas and gas byproduct manufactured.  These include carbonized coal in net tons, coke products in net tons, tar products in net tons, water gas produced in millions of cubic feet, coke oven gas produced in millions of cubic feet, still gas produced in millions of cubic feet, water gas purchased in millions of cubic feet, coke oven gas purchased in millions of cubic feet, still gas purchased in millions of cubic feet, ammonia products in pounds, benzol products in pounds, naphthalene produced in pounds, gas brought into Pennsylvania in millions of cubic feet, and gas sold outside Pennsylvania in millions of cubic feet.  Also given are statistical breakdowns of gas sales, length and dimensions of transmission lines, and a list of the cities, towns and political subdivisions served.

The Annual Reports of Natural Gas Companies, 1931-1936, 1939-1955.  (9 cartons) {series #14.14} submitted to the Department of Internal Affairs by natural gas companies provide the date of report, name and address of home office, amount of capital invested in Pennsylvania, names and addresses of officers, rate schedule, estimated population in area served, average number of male and female employees, total wages and salaries paid to male and female employees, and a breakdown of natural gas production by county.  The natural gas production breakdown by county gives the number of acres owned, the number of acres under lease, the number of gas wells owned and operated, the number of million cubic feet of gas purchased, the number of million cubic feet of gas produced, the number of productive wells drilled, the number of non-productive wells drilled, the number of gas wells abandoned, the number of million cubic feet exchanged with other companies, the number of wells sold, the number of million cubic feet of gas imported to Pennsylvania, and the number of million cubic feet exported from Pennsylvania.  Also given are statistical breakdowns of gas sales, length and dimensions of transmission lines, and a list of the cities, towns and political subdivisions served.

The Annual Reports of Private and Municipal Electric Light, Heat and Power Companies and Steam Heat Companies, 1931-1965. (7 cartons) {series #14.16} submitted to the Department of Internal Affairs by private and municipal electric light, heat and power companies and steam heat companies provide the date of report, name and address of electric utility, names of counties served, form of ownership, breakdown of investment in electric plant, breakdown of installed capacity (steam generation, hydro-generation, and internal combustion generation), and the fuel consumption and kilowatt-hour production by type of fuel (anthracite coal, bituminous coal, lignite, fuel oil, gas and hydroelectric production).  Also given is a breakdown of operating revenue and sales data for the preceding year (residential, rural, commercial, industrial, public street and highway lighting and railway and street railway).  Finally, there is a breakdown of revenue and expenses for the preceding year, average employment and total wages paid for the preceding year, water intake during the preceding year other than from public water systems, and name and address of person to be contacted concerning contents of the report.

The Annual Reports of Water, Light, Heat, and Power Companies, 1921-1922, 1925, 1927-1930.  (3 cartons) {series #14.22}  filed with the Department of Internal Affairs by water, light, heat and power companies provide the name and address of home office of respondent, amount of capital invested in Pennsylvania, names and addresses of officers, estimated population of territory served, average number of employees in Pennsylvania and the wages paid.  For water systems the information provided is number of customers, amount furnished, average price per 1,000 gallons, and revenue derived.  For Electricity-Light, Electricity-Heat, and Electricity-Power Companies information given is number of consumers, number of kilowatt-hours supplied, average price per kilowatt-hour, and revenue derived.  For steam heat companies information provided is number of consumers, number of pounds of condensation supplied, average price per 1,000 pounds of condensation, and revenue derived.

This record group also provides some documentation on early geological surveys that revealed the location of coal, oil, natural gas, and mineral deposits. The First Geological Survey of Pennsylvania authorized by the General Assembly commenced in 1836 and resulted in the publication of The Geology of Pennsylvania by State Geologist Henry Darwin Rogers (Harrisburg: 1858).  The Second Geological Survey headed by J. Peter Lesley commenced in 1874 and resulted in a series of published reports issued through 1889.  The Third Geological Survey occurred in the period 1899-1919 and the Fourth Geological Survey commencing in 1919 eventually resulted in the publication of The Geology of Pennsylvania edited by Charles H. Shultz (Harrisburg: 1999).  The Bureau of Topographic and Geological Survey was created by the Act of the General Assembly approved June 17, 1919 (P. L. 420) providing for the appointment by the Governor of a State Geologist who, with the approval of the Secretary of Internal Affairs, appointed other employees of the Bureau.  From 1919 to 1923 the Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey in the Department of Internal Affairs was responsible for conducting a thorough survey of the geology and topography of the state and preparing maps showing the type of rock found beneath the surface in each region.  It also conducted studies of individual mineral commodities and published the results of laboratory examinations of rocks encountered during field studies.  Topographic mapping, groundwater studies, and mineral resource studies were conducted in cooperation with the United States Geologic Survey and the results of these studies have also been published.  The Bureau provided general geologic and topographic information to the public and technical information concerning geologic and groundwater problems to local governments and many state agencies.  The Bureau was transferred to the Department of Forests and Waters when that agency was created in 1923 but was returned to the Department of Internal Affairs in 1927.  Under Act 610 of 1956, the Bureau began issuing licenses to well drillers and collected ground water information from the drillers.  When the Department of Internal Affairs was abolished, the Bureau was transferred to the State Planning Board in 1968, then to the Department of Environmental Resources in 1971.  With the breakup of the Department of Environmental Resources in 1995, the Bureau was transferred to the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources where it carries on most of the same functions for which it was responsible in the Department of Internal Affairs.

The Accounts of the Board of Commissioners of the Second Geological Survey, 1875-1877 (3 folders) microfilm roll #3420 {series #14.28} consist of monthly account reports for transportation, subsistence, expressage and postage, and equipment expenditures approved by the state geologist for the Second Geological Survey.  Information provided is voucher number, date, name of person to whom paid, draft number, total amount paid for month, district, monthly salary, monthly expenses, date of expenditure, a brief description of expenditure, and the amount of expenditure. The County Geological Maps of the Board of Commissioners of the Second Geological Survey, 1878-1884 (1 volume) microfilm rolls #3419-3420 {series #14.29} contain published geological color-coded maps of each county prepared by the Second Geological Survey in 1884.  The front of the volume contains a skeleton geological map for the entire state. Information provided includes the names of towns and townships, railroad lines, rivers and streams, and contours of geological formations. The Field Note Books of the Board of Commissioners of the Second Geological Survey, 1875 (4 volumes) microfilm roll #3420 {series #14.32} for fieldwork conducted in Fayette, Westmoreland, Greene and Washington Counties provide the date of entry, township and location of record, and description and thickness of geological formation measured. The General Correspondence of the Board of Commissioners of the Second Geological Survey, 1874-1885 (23 folders) microfilm rolls #3418-3420 {series #14.33} provide such information as date of correspondence, name of correspondent, and subject of correspondence. The Grand Atlas of the Second Geological Survey, 1884-1885 (6 volumes) {series #14.34} depicts anthracite coalfields, central and southeastern divisions, geological maps, petroleum and bituminous coal, and South Mountain and Great Valley topographical maps. The Minutes of the Board of Commissioners of the Second Geological Survey, [1874-1876 & undated] (1 volume, 1 folder) microfilm roll #3418 {series #14.35} provide date of meeting, names of those present, and a description of the business transacted. The Publication Plates of the Second Geological Survey, 1875-1880 (6 items) microfilm roll #3420 {series #14.36} are metal printing plates for title pages of geological survey publications on Clinton, Juniata and McKean Counties and on the general mineralogy of Pennsylvania.  Information provided on most plates is title of publication, names of commissioners and authors, and date of publication.

Record Group 16: Records of the Department of Labor and Industry

The Department of Labor and Industry was created in 1913 to enforce the laws of the Commonwealth relating to the welfare and safety of industrial employees. It replaced the Department of Factory Inspection, an outgrowth of the Office of Factory Inspector, which had been established in 1889. The Department administers the laws and programs relating to workmen's compensation, workmen's unemployment insurance, labor relations, mediation, the minimum wages enforced for women and minors, conditions of labor, fair employment practices and employment security. The Boiler Advisory Board Minutes, 1952-1983. (2 volumes) {#16.42} concern boilers and their operation. The board met a number of times each year to hear cases from various industrial and private concerns, as well as to consider or revise rules and regulations. Included in the minutes is a list of board members present for each meeting, the cases heard during the meeting, as well as a listing of candidates who took the Boiler Inspector's examination.

Record Group 25: Records of Special Commissions

The records of temporary independent commissions have been placed in one record group. These commissions were temporary since they were created to perform a specific function and then go out of existence. They were independent in that they were not established as a dependent commission under the purview of an on-going executive department. As can be readily ascertained from their names, these commissions were formed to serve primarily as investigatory or planning bodies, or as vehicles to erect public monuments and promote the official commemoration of historic events. Over the years more than a hundred temporary special commissions were created by acts of the General Assembly to function as independent administrative bodies for limited periods of time under the jurisdiction of the Governor.  Their life spans were determined by the amount of time required for them to fulfill their purposes.  The typical commission consisted of some combination of private citizens appointed by the Governor, members from either or both the House and Senate, the Speaker of the House, the President pro-tempore of the Senate, and certain heads of state agencies whose functions were related to the purpose for which the commission was created.  Special commissions generally met upon the call of their chairmen or presidents and operated under a set of prescribed rules and regulations.  Some commissions possessed the power to subpoena witnesses, books and papers.  Special commissions generally submitted final written reports on their activities to the Governor and the General Assembly.

The sole energy-related commission in this record group is the Pennsylvania Commission on Three Mile Island (TMI). On March 28, 1979 a series of failures of valves, pumps and gauges at Metropolitan Edison’s Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant, combined with errors by operators of the plant, resulted in the most serious commercial nuclear accident in the United States up to the present time.  A drop in the water level in the pressure vessel caused a third of the reactor core to be exposed and the exposed portion of the core overheated and partially disintegrated, releasing radioactive materials into the cooling water and generating a bubble of hydrogen gas at the top of the containment structure.  Low levels of iodine 131 were also released into the atmosphere. The Pennsylvania Commission on Three Mile Island was established by Governor Richard Thornburgh under Executive Order 1979-3 to investigate the causes of the nuclear accident. Chaired by Lieutenant Governor William W. Scranton III, the Commission cooperated with the President’s Commission on Three Mile Island established by President Jimmy Carter to investigate the accident and make recommendations in the aftermath of the crisis.  For related materials see also Manuscript Group 471 , the Harold and Lucinda Denton Papers  and the Manuscript Group 404, the Dick Thornburgh Papers.

The Department Files, 1979-1980 (3 boxes) {series #25.169} contain reports and plans that were prepared at the request of Governor Richard Thornburgh regarding the accident at Three Mile Island .  Information provided varies somewhat according to the nature of each department but generally includes date of report, description of actions taken or proposed actions and recommendations for the future. The First Thirty Days, 1979 (2 boxes) {series #25.138} contains newspaper clippings, press releases, telegrams, and memoranda chronicling the unfolding events during the first thirty days after the accident.  Included is a summary of the events occurring during the first thirty days and Western Union telegrams sent to Governor Richard Thornburgh from concerned citizens urging immediate evacuation of the area surrounding the plant.  The Legislative Subcommittee Reports, 1979-1980 (1 box) {series #25.139} contain memoranda and notes concerning the economic impact, emergency management, environmental, health, and legal aspects of the Three Mile Island accident.  Subjects addressed are reactions of department heads and programs for recovery.  The series was created in the office of William W. Scranton who served as Pennsylvania ’s Lieutenant Governor during the accident. Miscellaneous, 1979-1980 (4 boxes) {series #25.140} reports were generated by various federal and state government commissions concerning the accident at Three Mile Island .  These include testimony of Governor Richard Thornburgh, the General Public Utilities Economic Impact Report, Three Mile Island Hearings, Nuclear Regulatory Commission reports, and the report of the Pennsylvania Commission on Three Mile Island .

The Press Related Publications, 1979-1981. (3 boxes) {series #25.141} memoranda, reports, and newspaper clippings provide a general overview of the accident and of the nuclear industry in general including the subject of nuclear terrorism, the national nuclear debate, public opinion surveys conducted in Pennsylvania regarding the Three Mile Island Accident and its aftermath, and financial fallout including property tax implications. The Publications and Reports, 1977-1981 (9 boxes) {series #25.142} were collected by the Commission on various aspects of the nuclear industry and the Three Mile Island nuclear facility in particular.  The reports were issued by the President’s Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island , various Pennsylvania government agencies, and private experts on nuclear technology in general. Specific subjects include information on how a nuclear reactor works, the Technical Staff Analysis Report on the Radiation Health Effects Task Group, and investigative reports on the Three Mile Island accident and local governments.  Among these are the Report submitted by Commission Chairman John Kemeny, a 1977 interim acceptance plan for physical security at nuclear power plants, a 1979 Cumberland County evacuation plan, and a 1979 Dauphin County action and response plan. Also present are news editorials, Legal Aspects of the Three Mile Island Accident, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Plan for Cleanup Operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2. The Transcripts and Proceedings, 1979 (8 boxes) {series #25.143} concern the President’s Commission on Three Mile Island that was created by President Jimmy Carter that met from April 25 to October 22, 1979.  This commission consisted of a panel of experts who were charged with investigating the causes and making recommendations in the aftermath of the nuclear accident.  The type of information provided is date of hearing, names of those present, transcripts of the testimony and recommendations considered.

Record Group 26: Records of the Department of State

The Department of State is headed by the Secretary of the Commonwealth, whose office was established under the Constitution of 1776. The Secretary is the keeper of the Great Seal and the initial custodian for many of the official documents of State government. Election returns, the laws and resolutions of the General Assembly, and proclamations, veto messages and other recorded acts of the Governor are all filed with the Department of State. The Department is also responsible for issuing commissions to appropriate elected and appointed officials; receiving and examining documents relating to the incorporation and regulation of corporations; the regulation of professional boxing and wrestling matches; and the administration of legislation relating to election procedures, professional licensing, and the operation of charitable organizations.

Though there is little in this record group relating directly to the development of energy resources in Pennsylvania , the Corporation Bureau monitors and maintains records on both profit and non-profit corporations. Amendment or restatement of articles of incorporation, merger or consolidation, division of a corporation, change in principal office, change in share structure, increase or decrease in capital stock, conversion of stock, dissolution or reorganization of a corporation, and change in corporate officers must be filed with the Department of State. The Corporation Bureau is also the central filing agency for secured transactions under the Uniform Commercial Code and registration of trademarks. The Corporation Bureau maintains an online database of information, both current and historic, about all entities incorporated in Pennsylvania , including dates of incorporation and research inquiries should be handled directly through the Corporation Bureau.

Record Group 29: Records of the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission

The Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission was created in 1937 to construct, finance, operate and maintain a toll road which would connect the Harrisburg and Pittsburgh areas. The original section of the super-highway between Middlesex in Cumberland County and Irwin in Westmoreland County was completed in 1940. This route roughly followed the right-of-way of the South Pennsylvania Railroad, which had abandoned construction of its roadbed in 1885. The South Pennsylvania right-of-way was purchased by the Turnpike Commission, which also enabled it to utilize some of the original grading and tunneling done by the railroad. Construction of the highway was made possible by a grant from the Public Works Administration and the initial purchase of turnpike bonds by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. Eventually the Pennsylvania Turnpike was extended to the Delaware River and the Ohio border, and a spur route was completed to Scranton in 1957. Further expansion of the Turnpike became unnecessary with the passage of the Federal Highway Act of 1956, which provided for a system of limited access highways to be funded primarily by the federal government. These records are useful in understanding Pennsylvania ’s contribution to the development of the national interstate highway system that vastly increased automobile and truck transportation and the resulting current levels of gasoline and diesel fuel consumption in the United State

The Historical File, 1935-1941 (1 folder) {series #29.1} is a seventeen-page report on the history of the South Pennsylvania Railroad detailing the routes, grades, and construction procedures; a copy of a speech presented to state representatives on January 13, 1939; a copy of Resolution No. 138 given in the State House of Representatives on April 23, 1935; an essay on modern excavation methods for the Pennsylvania Turnpike; general correspondence; information on South Pennsylvania Turnpike tunnels (Laurel Hill, Blue Mountain, Ray's Hill, Tuscarora, Kittatinny, Sideling Hill, and Allegheny Mountain) including length, water capacity, and grade percentage; a tabulation of distances between interchanges and tunnels, and a history of Fort Ligonier. The Land Acquisition Records, 1938-1941 (14 folders) {series #29.2} contain agreements for land sales from private owners to the South Pennsylvania Railroad and Mining Company or between individuals. Each record provides the names of the grantor and grantee, deed date, acknowledgment date, acreage, monetary amount involved, deed book and volume number, and the signatures of the parties, witnesses, and recorder. The Maps, 1937, 1941 (2 items) {series #29.3} are wo separate maps of lands in Somerset County . One is a map of private properties, rail line routes, and coal regions in Lincoln , Jefferson , Somerset , Allegheny and Brother's Valley Township in Somerset County . This document was copied from the Map of Coal Lands by E.E. Dickey and Company, January 1912.The other map is Plan No. RW M-1061 Coal, Mineral, and Mining Rights to be Aquired from and Converged to Consolidation Company (Stony Creek Township, Somerset County, March 1941) . This map also shows the original South Pennsylvania Railroad Company deed owners.

The News Clipping Book, 1987-1988 (1 volume) {series #29.47} contains photocopied newspaper articles brought together to keep a history of the events and matters of The Pennsylvania Turnpike. The clippings are kept in a three-ring binder and sectioned by newspaper with dividers. The newspaper subcategories are: McKeesport Daily News,
New Castle , Altona Mirror, Beaver County Times, Butler Eagle, Connellsville Courier, Greensburg Tribune Review, Uniontown Herald-Standard, Pittsburgh Post Gazette, Pittsburgh Press, Somerset American, Monessen Valley Independent, Valley News Dispatch, and Washington Observer/Reporter. The date range of the binder covers two years, November 20, 1987 , to September 9, 1988 . The News Clippings, 1990 (1 carton, 1 box) {series #29.48} are organized in a series of 122 folders, structured to include information about specific topics. Most articles have a small tag with the date and newspaper on it, or the information is noted on the actual article. Other articles have a fax date, or a cut-and-pasted date and newspaper name, or include the heading of the page. This service was provided by Mutual Press Clipping Service Inc. Newspapers include: The Times Herald, The Daily Intelligencer, North Penn Reporter, and The Philadelphia Inquirer. Examples of the 1990 folders are: "Toll Plaza Bids;" "Bridge Project;" and "Memorabilia Fair."  The News Clipping Scrapbooks, 1951, 1960-1962 (3 volumes) {series #29.49} contain newsprint and glossy clippings of articles organized to create a record of Pennsylvania Turnpike issues. The large books, one labeled "Scrapbook," average 12"x 16" in size and contain taped or pasted clippings. Newspaper names and dates of articles appear on most of the clippings or on small pieces of paper attached to the articles. The clippings are from various papers: The Patriot News, The Pittsburgh Press, The Erie Dispatch, The Latrobe Bulletin, The Democrat, The Intelligencer, and others. Article examples are: "How Safe is the Pennsylvania Pike;" "Pike Snow - Fighting Equipment." "Use of Turnpike up 16.6% in 1950 Commission States ," and "Turnpike Hypnotism." Frequently documented topics include: crashes, statistics, conditions, general changes, tolls, traffic, signs, fires, DUI, lobbyists, truck drivers, jobs, speed changes; construction work proposed and news; and reactions to extensions into New Jersey and Ohio . The News Releases, 1989 (1 carton) {series #29.50} are press releases, rough drafts, notes, and faxes organized into subject folders to keep a record of releases made by the turnpike commisssion. The 63 folders contain official press releases and correspondence about the releases.

The Right-of-Way Tracings, 1937 (4 items, 1 folder) {series #29.4} are fold-out plans showing the depicting rights-of-way on the South Pennsylvania Railroad, detailing the angles and slopes. The Tunnel Profile Tracings, 1937 (7 items) {series #29.5} are fold-out grid tracings for the tunnels of the South Pennsylvania Railroad (Allegheny Mountain Tunnel, Laurel Hill Tunnel, Ray's Hill Tunnel, Sideling Tunnel, Twin Tunnels, and Tuscarora Tunnel). These blueprints show slopes and angles, cubic footage of materials to be used, length and width of the tunnel, division number and name, chief engineer and division engineer's name, and location and route of the tunnel. Consulting Engineers , 1937-1989 (1 carton) {series #29.54}  volumes of engineering firm brochures and investigative reports document the background research of prospective engineering companies and commissioned studies. Frequently the information appearing in the consulting engineers' overviews covers previous projects with photographs, staff, location information, creative aspects, and brief histories. Often, the investigation reports translate statistics; diagrams, graphs, and maps; problems; and conclusions. The engineering firm and the research firm material is background on the necessary devotion of funds for improvement and betterment of the turnpike.

The Indentures, 1937-1989 (1 carton) {series #29.55} are written contracts made to address the maintenance and preservation the Pennsylvania Turnpike. Specific information provided: enabling acts set out for the welfare of the turnpike; administrative codes; indentures between the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission and the Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Company; annual inspection reports; and a transportation study. Frequently, the information consists of pacts made between two organizations, or the state, in order to provide regulations and provisions for improvement in regard to the turnpike.

The Maps , 1976-1990 (1 folder) {series #29.51}  are folded road maps from various states and dates that add to the compilation of historical information in Miscellaneous Historical Items Relating to the Pennsylvania Turnpike, 1939-1990. Represented states and roads are include
North Carolina , Illinois , Wyoming , Vermont , New Mexico , the New York Thruway, and

Maine Turnpike Express Toll Highway
. Miscellaneous Historical Items Relating to the Pennsylvania Turnpike, 1939-1990 (3 cartons) {series #29.52} include reports, contracts, correspondence, booklets, photographs, tables, postcards, diskettes, and sundry informational items pertaining to the documentation of the accounts of the Pennsylvania Turnpike. The conglomeration is a varied set of information compiled for storage as a historical record. The miscellaneous carton sections frequently hold unique and typical business items, such as: postcards; specifications for the plumbing and drainage within written contracts; documentation of improvements; a booklet outlining the duties of a toll collector; a museum attraction consumer pamphlet; annual reports; and a volume about the maintenance of the turnpike. The compiled information covers a large date span, 1939-1990, but all information is specific to the turnpike. The News Clippings, 1990 (1 carton) {series #29.53} contain information about the Pennsylvania Turnpike important for their historical value. This series is made up of news clipping folders, arranged in rough alphabetical order from S to Y. Articles cover service center issues; speed limit debates; traffic advisories; and toll and money issues. The news clippings highlight events from 1990 and were kept to document the newsworthy events of the Pennsylvania Turnpike. The Reports, Legislation, and Office Documents, 1990 (2 cartons) {series #29.56} include contracts, legislation, and pamphlets associated with the Pennsylvania Turnpike, kept as an historical record. Several informational topics were collected: plans, conditions, and earnings of the South Penn Toll Highway; tabular data relating fares for specific classes of vehicles and exits; revenue projections; administrative procedures; workshop implementation guide highlighting the project approach and phases; a pamphlet commemorating the dedication of the turnpike; photographs of the work done on the tunnels of the turnpike; Pennsylvania enabling acts and federal compact; pamphlet outlining winter driving emergencies; correspondence; news clippings; and forms. The topics vary and are indicative of the daily occurrences and operations of the Turnpike Commission.

Also present are extensive materials relating to the South Pennsylvania Railroad that was the brainchild of Colonel Charles L. Schlatter for an efficient rail route from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh the right of way if which was eventually incorporated into the Pennsylvania Turnpike. The South Penn was first known as "The Duncannon, Landisburg and Broad Top Railroad," and was incorporated by an act of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania on May 5, 1854 . In 1883 William H. Vanderbilt took over control of the construction of the South Pennsylvania Railroad. By 1885 J.P. Morgan convinced Vanderbilt to hand over the completed portions of the South Pennsylvania Railroad to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in order to ease the competitive tensions between the Pennsylvania Railroad and the New York Central Railroad. After numerous court proceedings for shareholding rights, the rights-of-way for the South Penn were split between the Southern Pennsylvania Railway and Mining Company and the Fulton, Bedford, and Somerset Railroad Company and as a result the South Penn was never completed. In 1937 the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission was established, and by October of that same year many of the old right-of-way and abandoned tunnels were transferred to the newly established Commission.

Record Group 31: Records of the Department of Commerce

The Department of Commerce was created in 1939 to promote the development of business, industry, and commerce in the State. Under the original commerce legislation, the Pennsylvania State Publicity Commission was abolished and its function of attracting tourists to the Commonwealth was transferred to the Department as the Bureau of Travel Development and Business Services. The State Planning Board also became an administrative board within the Department of Commerce where it remained until 1955. In 1968 the Bureau of Statistics of the Department of Internal Affairs was assigned to the Department of Commerce along with administrative responsibilities for the newly created Bicentennial Commission. The Department of Commerce served industry and various community industrial development organizations by administering federal and State aid programs providing statistical information and technical assistance. Urban planning and redevelopment functions were transferred to the Department of Community Affairs in 1966. Under Act 58, in 1996 the Department of Commerce was merged with the Department of Community Affairs to form the Department of Community and Economic Development that is charged with assisting both businesses and communities to thrive in an emerging global economy.

The Aerial Photographs and Index of the 1940 Aerial Survey of Pennsylvania, 1937-1942 (32 drawers, 26 cartons) {series #31.18} contains a wealth of pictorial information about Pennsylvania’s landscape that may shed light on the presence of power lines, mining operations, power plants, and the location of various types of transportation arteries.. Numerous 8" x 10", black and white, "bird's eye view" photographs are found for each county taken at frequent intervals from a airplane that flew back and forth in linear swaths until an entire jurisdiction was documented. The photographs bear unique numbers representing the particular flight path of the plane and the sequence of the overlapping shots. Visible are physical features of the land, such as forests, fields, bodies of water, and roads, as well as houses, outbuildings and other structures, and even foundations and remains of buildings no longer extant. The fact that the photographs overlap each other allows many of the features to be seen from slightly different angles, a feature that has been found useful by archaeologists and historic preservationists. Scanned images of these photographs can be viewed by following a link to the PennPilot website at www.pennpilot.psu.edu/ that was developed as a partnership between the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources and the Penn State Center for Environmental Informatics. The originals of these photographs are held by the State Archives. The Geographic Index to Aerial Surveys, 1946-1950 (3 volumes) {series #31.19} were taken during the 1940 Aerial Survey of Pennsylvania.

Record Group 37: Records of the Public Utility Commission

The Public Utility Commission was created in 1937 to regulate the intrastate rates and services of public utilities. The Commission replaced the Public Service Commission that had been charged with that responsibility since its establishment in 1913. Created in 1907 and given powers only over common carriers, the Pennsylvania State Railroad Commission had been the Commonwealth's first public utility regulatory agency. The State Railroad Commission was abolished when the Public Service Commission was given the authority to regulate all public service companies except those engaged in interstate commerce. The jurisdiction of the Public Utility Commission extends to gas and oil pipeline transmission, common carriers of passengers or property (train, bus, truck, taxicab, aircraft and ferry), and gas, water, telephone, telegraph, electric, steam and sewerage companies. Utility services provided by municipalities beyond their corporate limits are also subject to Commission regulation. The Minute Books of the Public Service Commission and the Public Utility Commission, 1919-1968 (224 volumes) {series #37.2} contains a record of the meetings and proceedings of the Public Service Commission, October 20, 1919 to March 30, 1937, and the Public Utility Commission, April 6, 1937 to November 7, 1968. These Commissions had the general and administrative power to supervise and regulate all public service companies conducting business within Pennsylvania. Information provided by the minutes includes the date and location of the meeting, as well as a record of attendance. Matters discussed during the meetings include the actions taken in regard to complaints and applications submitted to the Commission. The complaints and applications pertain to rate schedules, fare increases, operators as carriers for persons or property, the operation of transportation services in or between specified areas, utilities in specified areas, facility improvements, the failure to pay fines or damages, the failure to attain property and injury insurance.

The Three Mile Island Investigation Records, 1968-1988 (22 cartons) {series #37.3} relating to the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant accident of March 28, 1979 and the financial consequences resulting from it contain docket case files, residential petitions, testimony and exhibit files, hearing transcripts, Three Mile Island Unit 2 daily flow documents, and pre-incident, incident and post-incident documents, such as testimony and hearing transcripts, exhibits, correspondence, petitions, orders, and reports. Also found are related case items, including Public Utility Commission Docket Number 1-790404308, Pennsylvania Public Utility vs. Metropolitan Edison Company and Pennsylvania Electric Company; and Three Mile Island Unit 1 docket 50-89 documents.

The Bureau of Rates and Research organized in 1945 was responsible for the investigation and regulation of rates, tariffs, accounting systems, mergers and consolidations for all non-transportation utilities. This bureau became the Bureau of Rates and Fixed Utilities in 1976. The Annual Reports of Non-Public Utilities, 1914, 1922-1995 (107 cartons) {series #37.4} contain financial and statistical statements of non-transportation companies, such as telegraph, telephone, water, gas, electric, and combination utilities, filed annually with the Rates and Research Bureau of the Public Utilities Commission. Information furnished varies by type of utility, but generally include each company's name and location, reporting period, type of utility, names of officers and directors, corporate structure, financial statements, and statistical tables which describe the physical system and services provided by the utilities.

Record Group 43: Records of the Department of Environmental Resources

The functions relating to the management and protection of the natural resources of the Commonwealth were centralized in the Department of Environmental Resources in 1971. Under the terms of legislation passed in the previous year, the departments of Forests and Waters and Mines and Mineral Industries were then abolished and their powers and duties assigned to the Department of Environmental Resources. In addition, specific responsibilities for the protection of environmental resources previously vested in the departments of Agriculture, Health, and Labor and Industry, and the State Planning Board were also transferred to the Department. Correspondence Received by the Secretary, 1986-1989 (8 cartons) {series #43.1} of Environmental Resources Nicholas DeBenedictis and Secretary Arthur A. Davis on a wide variety of subjects provides information on a proposed joint funding agreement between the Department of Environmental Resources and the United States Geological Survey, implementation of an “Automated Violator System” for documenting accidents and safety violations in coal mines, and installation of an innovative anthracite coal boiler by Fluidized Energy Company of Frackville at the State Correctional Institution at Frackville.  A Waste Management, Inc. landfill application for Clearfield County and public concern over a Babcock and Wilcox plan for incinerating low level radioactive waste are also addressed.  Other topics include indoor radon levels, the Texas Eastern gas pipeline, township sewage disposal projects, long range municipal waste planning, and the Pennsylvania Hazardous Waste Facilities Plan.  The Secretary’s Signed Correspondence, 1989 (1 carton) {series #43.2} by Secretary Arthur A. Davis concerning such diverse subjects as implementation of the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendment Act, the underground storage tank identification program, and mine reclamation activities.  Typical items found include letters documenting Pennsylvania’s compliance with United States Environmental Protection Agency air quality standards and Unites States Nuclear Regulatory Commission standards.  Also present is a cooperative letter of agreement between Pennsylvania and Delaware on coordinating responses to radiation emergencies.   Many letters to citizens and citizen advisory boards concern such matters as mine reclamation, sewage treatment facilities, and air and water quality regulations.   

The Deputy Secretary for Environmental Protection was responsible for directing the operations of the Bureau of Waste Management, Bureau of Mining and Reclamation, Bureau of Oil and Gas Management, Bureau of Radiation Protection, Bureau of Community Environmental Control, Bureau of Water Quality Management, Bureau of Laboratories, Bureau of Air Quality Control, and Bureau of Deep Mine Safety.  The deputy secretary also sat on the Advisory Committee on Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control, the State Board for Certification of Sewage Treatment Plant and Waterworks Operators, the State Board of Certification of Sewage Enforcement, the Coal and Clay Mine Subsidence Insurance Board, and the Seasonal Farm Labor Committee. The Correspondence Log, 1981 (1 folder) {series # 43.4} documents replies to correspondence received by the department from state legislators or the Governor’s Office.  Information given includes the date the letter was received, the name of the correspondent, a brief description of the subject of the letter, the surname of the person to whom the letter was assigned, the date assigned, and sometimes the date the reply was due. Pencil notations record the surname of the person who responded and the date of the response. Generally, the letters of inquiry were forwarded by various state legislators on behalf of their constituents.  The Direct Replies Correspondence Log, 1976-1984 (9 folders) {series #43.5} documents replies to general correspondence received by the department.  Information given includes the date the letter was received, the name of the correspondent, a brief description of the subject of the letter, the surname of the person to whom the letter was assigned, the date assigned, and sometimes the date the reply was due.  Pencil notations record the surname of the person who responded and the date of the response.  Generally, the letters of inquiry were received by the department from private firms or individuals, though a few were forwarded by various state legislators on behalf of their constituents.  Typical subjects include hearings on issuing strip mining permits, noise pollution, sewer line installation, and ground water contamination. 

The General Meeting File: Speeches and Testimony, 1971 (1 carton) {series #43.6} delivered by the deputy secretary was formerly known as Speeches, Articles and Testimony of the Deputy Secretary.  These were addressed to the American Public Works Association, the Association of Highway Officials, the Technon Society, the Pennsylvania Health Council, the Pennsylvania Petroleum Association, the American Academy of Environmental Engineers, the Soil Conservation Society of America, the American Public Works Association, the Advisory Council on Comprehensive Health Planning, and the United States House of Representatives’ Committee on Public Works.  Also present are transcripts of speeches delivered at Drexel University , Susquehanna University , and before a law enforcement workshop and a solid waste symposium. The Legislative Log, 1983-1984 (2 folders) {series #43.7} documents correspondence received from the Governor’s Office and various state legislators.  Information given includes the date the letter was received, the name of the legislator or the Governor’s Office Control Number, a brief description of the subject of the letter, the surname of the person to whom the letter was assigned, and the date of the response.  Typically, the letters refer to such subjects as the department’s environmental enforcement procedures, abandoned strip mines, and complaints concerning rodent infestations, sewage backups, well water contamination, and other environmental hazards.

The Replies from the Deputy Secretary (RD) Correspondence, 1970-1986 (4 cartons) {series #43.8} responding to letters received by the deputy secretary are typically stapled to the original letter of inquiry.  Information given includes the date the letter was received, the name of the correspondent, a brief description of the subject of the letter, the surname of the person to whom the letter was assigned, the date assigned, and sometimes the date the reply was due.  Pencil notations record the surname of the person who responded to the deputy secretary with the information required for the response and the date of the response.  Generally, the letters of inquiry were received directly from private firms or individuals, though a few were forwarded by various state legislators on behalf of their constituents.  Typical subjects include hearings on issuing strip mining permits, noise pollution, sewer line installation, and ground water contamination. The Replies from the Deputy Secretary (RD) Correspondence Log, 1976-1984 (9 folders) {series #43.9} includes the date the letter was received, the name of the correspondent, a brief description of the subject of the letter, the surname of the person to whom the letter was assigned, the date assigned, and sometimes the date the reply was due.  Pencil notations record the surname of the person who responded and the date of the response.  Generally, the letters of inquiry were received directly by the deputy secretary from private firms or individuals, though a few were forwarded by various state legislators on behalf of their constituents.  Typical subjects include hearings on issuing strip mining permits, noise pollution, sewer line installation, and ground water contamination. 

The Replies from the Secretary (RD) Correspondence, 1971-1986 (11 cartons) {series #43.10} typically are stapled to the original letter of inquiry. Some of these letters were sent by private firms or individuals directly to the department, though many were forwarded by various state legislators on behalf of their constituents and the replies were addressed to the legislators.  Typical subjects of the letters include testing of drinking water, ordinances for sand mounds, a Chester County landfill, constructing a dam on Brush Creek, issuance of permits for strip mines, noise pollution control, sewer line installation, and ground water contamination.  The Replies from the Secretary (RS) Correspondence Log, 1976-1984 (9 folders) {series #43.11} give the date the letter was received, the name of the correspondent, a brief description of the subject of the letter, the surname of the person to whom the letter was assigned, the date assigned, and sometimes the date the reply was due.  Pencil notations record the surname of the person who responded and the date of the response.  Generally, the letters of inquiry were sent by private firms or individuals directly to the secretary, though many were forwarded by various state legislators on behalf of their constituents and the replies were addressed to the legislators.  Typical subjects of the letters include testing of drinking water, ordinances for sand mounds, a Chester County landfill, constructing of a dam on Brush Creek, issuance of permits for strip mines, noise pollution control, sewer line installation, and ground water contamination. 

The Deputy Secretary of Public Liaison of the Department of Agriculture was responsible for the press office that prepared information releases for the media and analyzed public reactions to the department’s programs.  When responsibilities for this position were transferred to the Department of Environmental Resources they were merged with those of the Community Relations Office that promoted participation by citizens in helping to shape departmental policies and programs. The Speeches Delivered by the Secretary, 1955-1977 (1 carton) {series #43.12} consist of transcripts and drafts of speeches delivered by Secretary Maurice K. Goddard, Hydraulic Engineer A.J. Somerville, and Pennsylvania Soil Service Conservationist Ivan McKeever.  Topics covered include soil conservation, water rights, flood plain zoning, water resources development, and the Delaware River Basin .  Audiences included a Pennsylvania Vegetable Growers Conference, a public hearing of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, Pennsylvania Waterworks Association, Delaware Basin Survey Coordinating Committee, Interstate Commission on the Potomac River , Greater Erie Chamber of Commerce, Pennsylvania Electric Association, Swarthmore League of Women Voters, and the United States Senate’s Committee on Government Operations and Select Committee on Water Resources. 

The Bureau of Air Quality Control developed and implemented programs to ensure compliance with the State Air Pollution Control Act and the Federal Clean Air Act through aggressive monitoring, by investigating citizen complaints, and by initiating remedial action to abate the sources of air pollutants.  The bureau also established procedures for announcing air pollution alerts, advised people living in the affected areas about the prevailing conditions, and provided guidance to industries and citizen groups. The Air Pollution and Noise Complaints File, 1971-1974 (4 cartons) {series #43.15} consists of case files concerning complaints of air and noise pollution. The files contain both correspondence sent to the governor and letters arriving through the chain of command, through the courts, or public hearings. Information given includes the case number, the name of the offender (usually a private company), the municipality or township, the text of the original complaint, correspondence between the regional office and the original complainant, the offender, and the bureau. Until further notice these records are closed to the public to protect the identity of complainants by request of the Department of Environmental Protection. The Hearing Transcripts and Position Papers of the Environmental Quality Board, 1971-1972 (2 cartons) {series #43.16} submitted to the Environmental Quality Board on developing air pollution standards for Pennsylvania .  Information given includes the date and location the hearing was held, the names of those present, transcripts of the testimony delivered, and occasional exhibits and position papers supporting the testimony. 

When the Bureau of Mines and Mineral Industries was abolished in 1971, the Bureau of Deep Mining Safety in the Department of Environmental Resources became responsible for enforcing Pennsylvania ’s anthracite and bituminous coal mining laws. It provided for the health and safety of people employed in or around coal mines, protected the land upon which coal mining operations were conducted, and maintained an index of abandoned mine maps.  The bureau also had similar responsibilities for all metal and non-metal underground mining operations.  (For related materials see also Record Group 45, Records of the Department of Mines and Mineral Industries .)

The Anthracite & Bituminous Inspection Reports, 1971 (3 cartons) {series #43.19} relate to safety inspections of anthracite and bituminous coal mines.  The safety inspection reports for strip mines generally give the permit number, dates of the preceding and current inspection, date permit expired, district inspection number, name and address of the company, name of the contractor, name of the operation, number of employees, county and township where located, evaluations of explosive handling and blasting procedures, adequacy of night illumination, adequacy of first aid facilities, quantity of monthly production, whether water had accumulated in the pits, whether the pits were being legally back filled, and whether the operators were properly bonded. Safety inspection reports for deep mines give the anthracite district number; the name and address of the company; the location of the mine; date of the inspection; whether the mine was gaseous; the number of inside and outside employees; the name of the haulage way, gangway or local road as shown on the map; the volume of air entering the section; the gangway, breast or chamber number as they appear on the map; and a description of actions taken to correct unsafe conditions. Electrical inspection reports give the name of the company, the location of the mine, date of inspection, name of the superintendent, name of mine foreman, name of electrical supervisor, name of mine inspector, name of the equipment in use, a description and location of the electrical units, a description of defects found and corrections ordered, and the results of final check inspections, findings, and orders.  The correspondence generally consists of monthly safety committee letters and reports on breaker, washery, and bank inspections.

The Anthracite & Bituminous Mine Operators’ Annual Reports, Mine Inspectors’ Monthly Tonnage, Man-Hour and Accident Reports, and Related Items, 1971-1978 (10 cartons) {series #43.20} are monthly reports that give the name of the company, the name of the mine, the total number of inside and outside employees, strip mining tonnage, bank or river tonnage, total tonnage, number of days worked, number of man-hours inside, number of man-hours outside for the current month and for the year to date, number of fatal and lost time accidents of one day duration or more for the month and for the year to date, and the name of the breaker at which the coal was prepared.  The annual reports are extracts of the cumulative monthly reports.  The Register of Mine Accidents, Anthracite, Bituminous and Non-Coal, 1973-1989 (1 box) {series #43.53} contain such information in the non-fatal register as date of accident, mine where accident occurred, operator, county of occurrence, name of injured, age, marriage status, where accident occurred (inside or outside of mine), occupation, length of mining experience, description of accident, time of accident, citizenship status. The fatal register includes all the above information and whether the cause was chargeable or natural, date of death, and length of experience in occupation engaged in when injured.

The Bureau of Legal Services provided routine legal advice to the department with the exception of enforcement of statutes and regulations that fell within the purview of the Bureau of Regulatory Counsel. The Hearing and Legal Opinions, 1956, 1965-1972 (11 cartons) {series #43.21} were issued in cases of litigation involving the Department of Forests and Waters.  Among these are materials covering 109 cases involving such firms at Penbrook Contracting Corporation, Pennsylvania Coal and Coke Corporation, Mahoney Valley Coal Company, Shepard Coal Company, Rainey Coal Company, Harcliff Mining Company, Elliot Coal Company, Ridge Stripping Company, Wilmington Coal Stripping Company, Rocchis & Higer Construction Company, Joland Coal Company, Little Gem Construction Company, Comos Coal Mining Company, Mac Coal Company, Mauersburg Coal Company. Genovese Coal Coal Company, Ambrosia Coal and Construction Company, Arcadia Coal Company, Carlson Mining Company, Bulger Block Coal Company, Wester Development and Financing Corporation, Reading Anthracite Company, Lehigh Valley Coal Company, and International Fidelity Insurance Company.  Materials are also present for Sanitary Water Board cases involving such private firms as Sunbeam Coal Corporation, Kristianson & Johnson Coal Company, Pennsylvania Power and Light Company, G & M Poultry Company as well as the boroughs of Girard, Albion , Taylor , Minersville, Old Forge, Palo Alto , and Port Carbon, as well as for the City of Pottsville .  Air pollution case files cover such firms as Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Babcock & Wilcox Company, Erie-Lackawanna Railroad Company, P.H. Glatfelter Company, Duquesne Light Company, and Cloisterdale Farms, Inc.  Finally, there are litigation files concerning park land acquisition and the National Powder Company and transcripts of water quality criteria hearings concerning the Lehigh River and the Delaware River Estuary. 

The Bureau of Mining and Reclamation now operates within the Department of Environmental Protection, which was created when the Bureau of Environmental Resources was abolished in 1995. Earlier records relating to mine reclamation descended from the Department of Mines and Mineral Industries and were inherited by the Department of Environmental Resources in 1970. The bureau administers an environmental regulatory program for all mining activities, mine subsidence regulation, and coal refuse disposal. It also administers mining license and permit programs, a regulatory program for the storage and use of explosives, and a loan program for bonding of anthracite mines. In addition, the bureau administers the mine subsidence insurance program, the small coal operators' assistance and areas unsuitable for mining programs, and engages in research to prevent and abate mine drainage problems. The Anthracite and Bituminous Coal Mine Subsidence Fund was created by Act No. 484, P.L. 1068, on August 23, 1961 for the purpose of insuring homeowners against damage caused by coal mine subsidence. The Permits Division Maps, [undated] (29 microfilm rolls) {series #43.22} are microfilm copies of aerial maps prepared by the Bureau of Land Protection's Division of Mine Subsidence Regulation for Luzerne County and similar areas affected by subsidence caused by coal mining activity. The search room finding aid provides a breakdown of the areas covered by division number. These maps were microfilmed by the Department of Environmental Resources circa 1976 and access is currently restricted.

The Bureau of Occupational Health began its life in the Department of Health. It was originally known as the Bureau of Industrial Hygiene and by 1959 had changed its name to the Division of Occupational Health. In 1972 it became known the above title and was housed under the Deputy for Environmental Protection and Regulation in the Department of Environmental Resources. The bureau was charged with administering programs which protected the health and welfare of Pennsylvania workers by evaluating environmental conditions in industrial plants, public buildings and agricultural activities; making recommendations for control of health hazards in industrial and environmental environments; enforcing occupational health standards and regulations; and investigating occupational disease sources to determine causes and recommend control measures. The Coal Industry Environmental Studies, [ca. 1943-1964] (1 microfilm roll) {series #43.54} include the results of dust surveys taken at various coal mines across Pennsylvania . Included in these files are survey reports, miscellaneous information concerning the mines surveyed, and associated correspondence. Also included are occasional listings of employment data, as well as details relative to mining techniques employed. Breaker information punch cards are also present that provide information on the coal companies operating the breakers, production and operation data, as well as information describing the medical services provided at each facility.  The Investigative Reports (after plant closures) of Health Hazards in Industrial Plants, ca. 1941-1973 (66 microfilm rolls){series #43.51} concern  health hazards and pollution complaints at various industrial plants throughout the state. The records span numerous years for some facilities, such as a thirty-year run of data for the Lebanon Steel Foundry. Information provided includes data on medical problems caused by hazardous working conditions (with names of the individuals given in a few instances), specifics on the types of machinery utilized at specific plants, employment statistics, survey records, inspection results and related laboratory reports, as well as descriptions of miscellaneous industrial processes.

The Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey was responsible for preparing topographical and geological survey maps of the Commonwealth. Information provided was used for developing the comprehensive state water plan. The Minutes of the Subcommittee on the State Water Plan, 1968-1971 (1 folder)  {series #43.23} that was charged with ensuring the preservation of Pennsylvania’s water and related land resources give the date of the meeting, the names of those in attendance, as well as a summary of the discussions. Hydrologic projections of water availability developed in cooperation with the Department of Forests and Waters may be included in the discussion summaries. The Minutes of the Water Resources Coordinating Committee, 1966-1970 (1 box) {series #43.24} that was charged with implementing the Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966 (P.L. 89-753) document the coordination of activities that took place between the Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, Department of Health, Department of Highways, Department of Internal Affairs, Department of Mines and Mineral Industries, Pennsylvania Fish Commission, Pennsylvania Game Commission, and the State Planning Board. Also present are the Minutes of the Water Supply Task Force of the Water Resources Committee, 1970-1971 (1 folder) {series #43.25} reveal much about the respective responsibilities of the Department of Commerce, Department of Agriculture, Department of Health, Department of Community Affairs, Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, and the Department of Forests and Waters.

Record Group 45: Records of the Department of Mines and Mineral Industries

The Department of Mines was created in 1903 to succeed the Bureau of Mines that was originally established in the Department of Internal Affairs in 1897. The name of the Department was changed in 1956 to Mines and Mineral Industries. In keeping with its primary responsibility of protecting coal miners from unsafe working conditions, the Department enforced the anthracite and bituminous coal mining laws of the Commonwealth, inspected mines and collieries, investigated serious accidents, and supervised the examination and certification of applicants for certain mining jobs. The Department also supervised the restoration of strip-mine areas, promoted research relating to new uses and markets for coal, and published the annual reports of the coal mine inspectors. In 1971 the Department of Mines and Mineral Industries was abolished and its powers and duties transferred to the newly created Department of Environmental Resources.

The Anthracite and Bituminous Mine Inspection Reports, 1968-1970 (16 cartons) {series #45.1} concern  electrical safety, anthracite strip safety inspection, breaker-washery-bank inspections, annual statistical reports, anthracite and bituminous large mine reports, preparation plant inspection reports, and bituminous small mine and safety inspection reports. Reports of the electrical inspector show the names of the company, district, mine inspector, and electrical inspector; equipment used and a description and location of defective units and corrections ordered.  Reports on the cleaning and preparation plant, small mine, deep mine, and strip mine inspections contain routine information on safety matters. There were four types of forms used for an annual statistical report and the bituminous and anthracite forms differ somewhat.  All forms contain the district, year, operators and collieries, and county.  Forms DMMI-AD-1 and DMMI-BD-3 are similar and provide mailing information, as well as the name of the railroad having access to the colliery; the number of each kind of ground opening such as a shaft, slope, or drift; the number of gaseous or non-gaseous mines; and the number and type of lamps.  Forms DMMI-AD-2 and DMMI-BD-2 include production information, such as how the coal was shipped to market; how much coal was used at the colliery; explosives used in the mines; the number of days worked and the number of employees; and the number of fatal and non-fatal accidents.  The bituminous form documents coke production as well.  DMMI-AD-3 and DMMI-BD-4 forms include information on the number of employees and a description of their jobs.  DMMI-AD-4 provides information on machinery used such as electric generators, water pumps and ventilation equipment.  DMMI-BD-1 forms include information on drainage and haulage.

The Anthracite and Bituminous Mine Inspectors’ Monthly Tonnage, Man-Hour and Accident Reports, 1969-1970 (2 cartons) {series #45.2} were monthly reports prepared by mine inspectors for the Department of Mines and Mineral Industries. The information provided includes the district number; name of inspector; date, name of company and mine, total number of workers employed inside and outside and whether a deep mine, strip mine, bank or river.  Also given is total tonnage, number of days worked, number of man hours worked inside and outside, total number of man hours worked inside and outside for the month and year to date, number of fatal and lost time accidents of one day or more for the month and year to date, accident frequency rate for the month and year to date, and name of breaker where coal was processed.

The Bituminous Mine Certification Records for Assistant Foremen, 1911-1923 (6 volumes) {series #45.3} were created to comply with registration, training, and examination standards for foremen as specified in the act of June 9, 1911 .  Information provided from the copies of the certificate includes the name, place of birth, and age of the foreman; a description of the length and nature of his service; the date and number of the certificate; and the name of the Chief of the Department of Mines.  The volume entitled "Certificates of Service" provides such information on each foreman as name, place of birth, age, length and nature of service, date of certificate, name of mine and mine operator, inspection district and report number. The Bituminous Mine Certification Records for Assistant First and Second Grade Foremen, 1923-1963 (5 volumes) {series #45.4} for the Assistant First and Second Grade Foremen provide information about each foreman that includes name, place of birth, place of residence, age, inspection district, date and number of certificate, name of mine and mine operator, length and nature of service, the mine district number, and the report number and date.  Second Grade Foreman registers begin in 1923, and First Grade Foreman registers begin in 1938.  First and Second Grade registers are found within the same volumes for 1938-1951 and 1962-1963. The Bituminous Mine Certification Records for Electricians, 1939-1963 (2 volumes) {series #45.5} were created to comply with registration, training, and examination standards for foremen specified in the act of June 9, 1911 .  Information is presented in register format and includes the mine district number; the name, residence, place of birth, and age of the electrician; the length and nature of service; the date and number of the certificate; and the report number and date.  The last volume also contains Bituminous Mine Certification Records for Fire Boss Examiners, 1912-1963 {series #45.6} for the years 1962 and 1963. The Bituminous Mine Certification Records for Fire Boss Examiners, 1912-1963 (12 volumes) {series #45.6} were created to comply with registration, training, and examination standards for foremen specified in the act of June 9, 1911 .  The first nine volumes cover the years 1912 through 1923 and include the following information in certificate form: the name, place of birth, and age of the examiner; a description of the length and nature of his service (experience); date and number of the certificate; and the name of the Chief of the Department of Mines. From 1923 on, the volumes are presented in register format and provide the mine district number; the name, residence, place of birth, and age of the examiner; the length and nature of service; the date and number of the certificate; and the report number and date.  The last volume also contains Bituminous Mine Certification Records for Electricians, 1939-1963 {series #45.5} for the years 1962-1963. 

The Bituminous Mine Certification Records for First Grade Foremen, 1903-1963  (10 volumes) {series #45.7} were required to be kept of foremen under statutes designed to protect the health and safety of persons employed in and about bituminous coal mines.  From 1903 to 1923 data is presented in certificate form and includes the name, mine district, place of birth, and age of the foreman; a description of the length and nature of his service (experience); the date and number of the certificate; and the name of the Chief of the Department of Mines.  After 1923, the information is recorded in register format with internal indexes, and includes the mine district number; the name, residence, place of birth, and age of the applicant; the length and nature of the person's service; the date and number of the certificate; and the report number and date.  The last volume also contains Bituminous Mine Certification Records for Second Grade Forman, 1903-1963 {series #45.8} for the years 1962-1963.  The Bituminous Mine Certification Records for Second Grade Foremen, 1903-1963 (9 volumes) {series #45.8} were required to be kept of foreman to comply with statutes that provided for the health and safety of persons employed in and about the bituminous mines.  From 1903 to 1923 data is presented in certificate form and includes the name, mine district, place of birth, and age of the foreman; a description of the length and nature of his service (experience); the date and number of the certificate; and the name of the Chief of the Department of Mines.  After 1923, the information is recorded in register format with internal indexes, and includes the mine district number; the name, residence, place of birth, and age of the applicant; the length and nature of the person's service; the date and number of the certificate; and the report number and date.  The last volume also contains Bituminous Mine Certification Records for First Grade Foreman, {series #45.7} for the years 1962-1963.

The Colliery Inspection Registers, 1899-1920 (18 volumes) {series #45.9} contain material on accident investigations by Mine Inspectors from the Department of Mines and Mineral Industries.  Information provided includes name of colliery and mine number, name of operator or company, county, month and dates of inspection and any remarks.  In 1899, other duties of inspectors were documented and include mine machinery and plant inspections; accident investigations, inquest attendance, routine office work, map and plan inspections, office consultations on mining or legal matters.  The length of the inspections was noted as either a day or a half-day. The Correspondence of Anthracite Division Mine Inspectors, 1903-1951. (4 cartons) {series #45.10} from the Chief of the Department of Mines in Harrisburg, division inspectors, the Director of the Department of Interior, the Bureau of Mines and owners or operators of mines in each inspector's district contain information on the use of open lamps, mine explosions, mine fires, safety issues, Commission of Inspectors opinions on mining issues, court decisions on regulations, meetings of inspectors, blue prints, accident reports, questions on employment, and investigations conducted. The Correspondence of Bituminous Division Mine Inspectors, 1903-1930, 1936, 1949 (7 cartons) {series #45.11} to and from the Chief of the Department of Mines in Harrisburg, division inspectors, the Director of the Department of Interior, the Bureau of Mines and owners or operators of mines in each inspector's district concerns use of open lamps, mine explosions, mine fires, safety issues, Commission of Inspectors opinions on mining issues, court decisions on regulations, meetings of inspectors, blue prints, accident reports, questions on employment, and investigation.

The General Correspondence, 1903-1965 (25 cartons) {series #45.12} includes reports, memoranda, speeches, articles and budgets from the Office of the Secretary of the Department of Mines and Mineral Industries.  Subjects discussed include  appropriations, automobile equipment, accidents, the Anthracite Institute, child labor laws, the Coal Advisory Board, bituminous mine inspectors, the Economy and Efficiency Committee, various Pennsylvania governmental departments, dewatering mines, electrical inspectors, explosives, the Holmes Safety Association, mine fires, mine gas, mining schools,  mine refuse pile fires, the Republican State Committee, the Pennsylvania State Police, the Sanitary Water Board, strike reports, strip mine inspectors, welfare conditions and living conditions, union and non-union mines, the Works Progress Administration (WPA), and tests of miners' lamp oil at the University of Pittsburgh. The Mine Disaster File,   1939-1964 (3 cartons) {series #45.13} contains correspondence, memoranda, reports, transcriptions and agendas filed by the Commission of Mine Inspectors concerning mine disasters.  Reports by the Commission describe the mine, type of disaster, the extent of the damage, a description of rescue and recovery operations, investigations, conclusions and recommendations.  Some reports are more detailed than others.  Major mine disasters investigated include the Cochran Mine, Westmoreland County; Knox Mine, Pittston; No. 58 Mine, Marianna, Washington County; Primrose Colliery, Minersville; and Robena No. 3 Mine, Green County. Documentation of these disasters often includes hearings, reports, bids and contracts, correspondence, photographs and blueprints.  The Knox Mine Disaster file contains Joint Legislative Committee Investigation materials and transcripts of laws and resolutions.

The Registers of Mine Accidents for Anthracite Districts, 1899-1972 (19 volumes) {series #45.14} provide documentation on mining accidents for the numerous Anthracite Coal Districts.  Information given includes name of the inspector, name of mine, name of the injured miner, mine district number, date of the accident, cause of accident, whether fatal, whether the accident occurred inside or outside the mine, citizenship status, nationality, job classification, marital status, and the number of children. The Registers of Mine Accidents for the Bituminous Districts, 1899-1972 (20 volumes) {series #45.15} provide documentation on mining accidents for the numerous Bituminous Coal Districts.  Information given includes name of the inspector, name of mine, name of the injured miner, mine district number, date of the accident, cause of accident, whether fatal, whether the accident occurred inside or outside the mine, citizenship status, nationality, job classification, marital status, and the number of children.

Record Group 52: Records of the Department of Transportation

The Department of Transportation was created on May 6, 1970 (PL 356) to replace the Department of Highways and the Pennsylvania Aeronautics Commission. Powers and duties formerly vested in the Department of Highways were assigned to the Department of Transportation. Functions of the Department of Revenue relating to the certification of title, licensing of operators, and the registration of motor vehicles, as defined by the "Vehicle Code" (1959 PL 58), and other duties and operations performed by the Revenue Department's Bureau of Motor Vehicles and Bureau of Traffic Safety were also transferred to the Department of Transportation. Programs originally developed in the Department of Commerce concerning high-speed rail transportation and the Mass Transportation Division in the Bureau of Community Development of the Department of Community Affairs also were transferred to the newly established Department.

The responsibilities of the Department of Transportation include coordinating and developing transportation policy; assisting in developing and operating highways, rail mass transit systems, and airports; formulating and revising a long-range master plan for both public and private commuter and general transportation facilities, intervening as a party before the Public Utility Commission when transportation problems are being considered, and representing the transportation interests of the Commonwealth before any Federal agency or Commission charged with determining national or regional transportation rates, routes or policies. A Hazardous Substance Transportation Board also prescribes regulations for transporting hazardous materials. The Secretary of Transportation serves as the chairman of the State Transportation Commission consisting of the chair of the House and Senate Transportation Committees, one member of the minority party in both houses of the Assembly, and eight members appointed by the governor that was created to gather and study all available information relating to the need for highway, rapid transit, railroad, omnibus, marine and aviation facilities and services.

The Local and Area Transportation Programs 1970-1982. (103 cartons) {series #52.1} contain subject files from the office of the Deputy Secretary for Local and Area Transportation relating to Departmental programs in the Bureau of Aviation, Bureau of Mass Transit Systems, Bureau of Municipal Services and the Navigation Office for the Delaware River. The general alphabetical file includes reports, studies, news clippings and correspondence between the Deputy Secretary and federal, state, and local officials concerning public transportation issues. Often found in these files are correspondence, memoranda and reports relating to Departmental operations (staffing, organization, budgeting, goals and objectives), as well as the minutes of staff meetings held by the Secretary of Transportation. Specialized subject files contain correspondence, memoranda and reports concerned directly with railroad and aviation issues, such as construction, service, routes, and facilities.

The Meeting Files of the Technical Advisory Committee on Highway Plans and the Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission, 1972-1974 (1 carton) {series #52.2} is a  record of the joint meetings of the Technical Advisory Committee on Highway Plans and the Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission. Information provided by the minutes includes the date, time and location of the meeting; a list of members and visitors present; and a synopsis of topics discussed and actions taken during meetings. Generally, topics of discussion include highway and public transportation projects, commute travel times, parking analysis, and air quality standards. Documents accompanying the minutes include agendas, staff reviews of projects, correspondence, studies, and reports.



The Center for Program Development and Management under the Bureau of Planning is responsible for the development and management of the Twelve Year Transportation Program for highways and bridges, airports, rail lines and mass transit systems. The Center also conducts related coordination activities with local governments on program issues. The Twelve Year Transportation Program Publications, 1976 (1 box) {series #52.6} contains the "Twelve Year Transportation Program for Highways" and the "Twelve Year Transportation Program for Public Transportation and Airport Development," which are the official documents listing the transportation projects to be undertaken by the Department during the twelve year period from July 1, 1976 through June 30, 1988. Development of the twelve year transportation program is a requirement of Act 120 of 1970. Functionally, the transportation program report for highways is a detailed listing of top priority highway construction projects planned for implementation over the twelve year period. The twelve year transportation program report for public transportation and airport development is a companion document that reflects the Department's deep involvement in "non-highway" transportation. It contains a similar detailed listing of projected improvements in public transportation and airports.



The State Transportation Commission was formed in 1970 as part of Act 120 which created the Department of Transportation. The Commission is vested with the responsibilities to gather and study information relating to the needs of highway construction or reconstruction, rapid transit, railroad, mass transportation facilities and services, and aviation and airport facilities and services, to determine the need and the recommended order of priority for their construction or reconstruction. The Records of the

State Highway
and Bridge Authority,
State Highway
Commission, State Transportation Commission and Transportation Advisory Committee, 1949-1994. (32 microfilm rolls) {series #52.8} contains such types of records as agendas, public hearing minutes, resolutions, reports, and testimony of the above organizations. The database listing give the title of the Commission, Authority or Committee ("pressfilename"); the type of records, such as minutes or agenda ("doctype"); date of the document ("docdate"); where the item was distributed from ("distloc"); what the document covered ("subject"); the date the item was indexed on the database ("indexdat"); the roll number the document is on ("roll") and the frame number the document first appears on ("frame"). "Pressrelease" is also listed as a field, but not used. Acronyms that appear are State Highway and Bridge Authority (SHBA) and Pennsylvania Transportation Assistance Authority (PTAA).

Record Group 63: Records of the Energy Office

The Pennsylvania Energy Office, formerly known as the Governor's Energy Council, was established by Executive Order on July 23, 1987 to ensure energy security for the Commonwealth through planning, development and energy efficiency. The Lieutenant Governor served as the Chairman of the Office that was charged with developing sustainable energy policies and to minimize adverse environmental impacts attributable to the production and consumption of energy. These policies were implemented through legislation, program regulation, and federal grants activities.

Two of the programs implemented by the Energy Office were the Pennsylvania Green Buildings program that improved the energy efficiency of the 13,000 state-owned and operated buildings and the Alternative Fuel Incentive Grant Program that provided financial incentives to residents, corporate entities and local governments to convert vehicles or fleets to alternative cleaner burning fuels. The Office was also charged with the responsibility for assisting the commercialization of energy-related recycling under the Governor's Recycling Market Development Task Force and had the responsibility of providing information and technology transfer services to the Commonwealth's residents through regional energy centers.

In addition, the Office was active in coal, natural gas and oil development, renewable energy projects, utility and low income energy concerns, and energy efficiency in industry, commercial establishments and local government. A major focus of the Office was linking sustainable economic development with the environmentally benign use and consumption of indigenous energy resources. The Office was the primary recipient of federal and private energy funds assigned to Pennsylvania to improve energy efficiency and for policy planning and demonstration of new energy technologies. It was also responsible for monitoring petroleum supplies and implementing allocation measures during declared emergency petroleum product shortages.

The Office also administered the Pennsylvania Energy Development Authority that provided financial assistance to private industry, nonprofit organizations and the university community. This authority funded research, development and demonstration projects covering diverse activities in the fields of clean coal technologies, renewable energy, and increasing energy efficiency. The Department of Energy was abolished in 1995 under Executive Order 95-4. The unprocessed accessions from this agency held by the State Archives include Coal Conversion and Cogeneration Feasibility Studies, Survey Records, State Building Conservation Program Files, the Pennsylvania Gasoline Marketing/Oil Divorcement File, and Pennsylvania Energy Center (formerly the Governor’s Energy Council) Files.

Record Group 65: Records of the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources

The Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR) was created by Act 1995-18 which took effect July 1, 1995 , and divided the functions of the discontinued Department of Environmental Resources (DER) between DCNR and the newly created Department of Environmental Protection. DCNR oversees the public lands formerly controlled by DER, and the gathering and dissemination of topographic and geologic information. A Conservation and Natural Resources Advisory Council reviews all conservation and natural resources laws of Pennsylvania and suggests changes; reviews and makes recommendations concerning all the work of the DCNR; and annually reports to the Governor and General Assembly. It is equal in status to the DCNR and not subordinate to the Department's chief executive, the Secretary of Conservation and Natural Resources. Under the Secretary of Conservation and Natural Resources are and Executive Deputy Secretary for Parks and Forests and two Deputy Secretaries. The records from this agency held by the State Archives are still unprocessed but include annual reports, minutes and agendas of the Snowmobile and ATV Advisory Committee, papers relating to Ralph Elwood Brock, Minutes of DCNR Advisory Council Business Meetings, photographs, Youth Conservation Corps films, and correspondence, aerial surveys, field notebooks and maps received from the Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey.

Record Group 66: Records of the Department of Environmental Protection

The Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) was created by Act 1995-18 which split the Department of Environmental Resources (DER) into DEP and the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. The statute designated DEP as the renamed Department of Environmental Resources, and DEP received a blanket transfer of all basic powers and duties of that discontinued department not specifically assigned to the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. DER's authority over state forests, parks, and outdoor recreational facilities was given to Conservation and Natural Resources, so that DEP is not directly involved in administering public properties.

The Department of Environmental Protection is charged with responsibility for development of a balanced ecological system incorporating social, cultural, and economic needs of the Commonwealth through development and protection. It is responsible for the state's land, air, and water management programs, as well as other aspects of environmental protection, and the regulation of mining operations. The Secretary of Environmental Protection heads the Department. There is an Executive Deputy Secretary for Policy and Communications, an Office of Chief Counsel, and five Deputy Secretaries. The Deputy Secretary for Management and Technical Services provides all the Department's support services. The Deputy Secretary for Field Operations oversees the Department's six regional offices, the environmental emergency response program, and the hazardous waste sighting team. The Deputy Secretary for Water Management provides program guidance, development, and evaluation for pollution control, water allocation and conservation, wetlands protection, stream improvements, and some community health programs. The Deputy Secretary for Mineral Resources Management regulates oil and gas production and runs six mining district offices which regulate active and abandoned mines. The Deputy Secretary for Air, Waste, and Radiation Protection overseas programs for air quality, hazardous waste, municipal and industrial waste, low-level radio waste, and the regulation of nuclear materials.

The Bureau of Deep Mine Safety is responsible for mining operations. The Annual Report on Mining Activities, 1996-2000. (5 volumes) {series #66.3} of the Bureau of Deep Mine Safety under Deputy Secretary Robert C. Dolence give the names and addresses of fatal accident victims, the name of the mine, the name of the company, the date of the accident, the name of the mine accident inspector, a description of the accident, the cause of the accident, means of presenting similar accidents in the future, and any conclusions resulting from the investigation.  The reports also provide statistical breakdowns of production levels for both the anthracite and bituminous regions.  Production information given generally includes the total quantity of coal produced by each mine, the number of employees, and the quantity of coal shipped by rail, water, and truck.  Alternate title formerly used for this series was Annual Statistical Reports, Bituminous Coal and Anthracite Coal Mining Activities.

The Anthracite Mine Certification Records for Foremen and Assistant Foremen, 1886-1968. (36 volumes) {series #66.1} certificate books, certificate receipt books, and registers. The certificate books contain copies of the certificates issued to eligible applicants, spanning the years 1886-1923 for foremen and 1891-1940 for assistant foremen. Information provided includes the certificate number and date issued; the name, residence, age, and place of birth of the applicant; length and nature of the applicant's service; mine district; and the report's number and date. The certificate receipt books, which cover the years from 1938-1963, contain only the receipt portion, not the actual certificate, and show the applicant's name, age, place of birth and length of service; the examining board's name; certificate number and date issued; and the applicant's test score. Finally, the registers list the name, residence, place of birth, and age of the applicant; the report's number and date; the certificate number and date issued; and length and nature of the applicant's service. The registers for foremen cover the period 1923-1955, and for assistant foremen from 1923-1968. The Anthracite Region Mine Accident Report Registers, 1961-1965, 1968-1975 (2 volumes) {series #66.2} provide a record of accidents affecting operations at Anthracite mining facilities. Information provided includes accident number; accident date; name of colliery or mine; name of mine operator; county where mine is located; name, age marital status, and occupation of employee(s) injured; whether the accident was fatal or non-fatal; number of work days lost; and finally, the cause of the accident and a description of the injury. The Examinations Relating to Bituminous Mine Officials, 1991 (1 carton) {series #66.6} are test copies, tally sheets and test answer sheets for examinations of Bituminous Mine Electricians, Mine Examiners and Mine Foreman are contained in this series. In addition there are certificates of character and affidavits of experience for a few miners who took these various tests in 1991. Included are the names and addresses of the miner and three persons who can attest to their character, and a history of each miner's work experience.

The Index Stubs and Cards to Miners' Certificates, 1937-1965 (102 boxes) {series #66.7} are certificate stubs and cards grouped into four separate batches as follows: Miners' Certificate Cards which date from 1937 and 1938; Machine Runner and Cutting, Loading, and Drilling Machine Operators Certificate Stubs, dating from 1938 through the late 1950s, possibly the early 1960s; Miners' Certificate Stubs which date from the late 1930s; and Miners' Certificate Stubs dating from 1939 through roughly 1965. The bulk of the stubs and cards date from 1937 through 1955, and all provide excellent genealogical data on rank-and-file miners and other mine workers who labored in the bituminous fields of western Pennsylvania. The Miner's Certificate Stubs are being re-organized alphabetically, but are still accessible to researchers. These records include 59 boxes of Miner's Certificate Cards, 1937, 1938, 12 boxes of Machine Runner and Cutting, Loading, and Drilling Machine Operators Certificate Stubs, 1930s-1960s, 6 boxes of Miner's Certificate Stubs, late 1930s, and 25 boxes of Miner's Certificate Stubs, 1939-1965.

The Environmental Quality Board (EQB) was established by Act 275 of 1970, Section 1920-A of the Administrative Code of April 9, 1929 . It is a twenty-member independent board that adopts all of the Department of Environmental Protection's regulations and is chaired by the Secretary of the Department of Environmental Protection. Board members represent the Department of Environmental Protection (Chair), Agriculture, Health, Community and Economic Development, the Public Utility Commission, the Fish and Boat Commission, the Game Commission, Labor and Industry, the Governor's Office of Policy, the Historical and Museum Commission, Transportation; five members of the Citizens Advisory Council and four members of the Senate and House. The EQB also considers petitions to change regulations and has other responsibilities, including the review of State (Clean Air) Implementation Plan changes, location of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, adopting a Hazardous Waste Facilities Plan and considering applications for certificates of public necessity for hazardous waste disposal facilities. The Public Hearing Transcripts, 1971-1989 (10 cartons & 13 boxes) {series #66.4} also include copies of rules and regulations, correspondence, meeting notices, reports, testimony copies and other miscellaneous materials relative to hearings conducted by the Environmental Quality Board. The hearings were held to get feedback from the public on proposed rules and regulations changes which were to be implemented by the Department of Environmental Protection, as well as numerous other responsibilities, which are listed in the above synopsis of the EQB. Topics of the meetings include: air pollution, bluff recession and setback, solid waste disposal, surface coal and non-coal mining activities, and water quality standards.

Materials on Field Operations include the Flood Files, 1996 (2 cartons) {series #66.5} relating to the major floods of January 1996. The floods were caused by the combination of heavy rains, unusually high temperatures, high winds, and the resultant rapid melting and runoff from thick snow packs. By January 23, 1996, all sixty-seven counties in Pennsylvania had been declared federal disaster areas eligible for emergency relief. Twenty lives were lost and many waterfront communities had curfews or evacuations ordered by local authorities. Sixty-nine bridges maintained by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation were destroyed or closed until inspections could verify their safety. Estimates placed the economic loss in Pennsylvania at more than one billion dollars. The Department of Environmental Protection worked with the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, the US Army Corps of Engineers, the Susquehanna River Basin Commission, the Delaware River Water Basin Commission, and other state, federal, and local agencies in relief efforts from the Floods of 1996. The records include daily activity logs, correspondence, flood assessment reports, situation reports, preliminary damage assessment reports, disaster updates, studies and reports, press releases, and weather statements.

Record Group 67: Records of the Environmental Hearing Board

The Environmental Hearing Board was created by the statute that created the Department of Environmental Resources in 1970, but the Board did not begin to function until February 1, 1972 . From that date until a new statute, the Environmental Hearing Board Act of 1988, went into effect on January 1, 1989, the Board was an integral part of the Department of Environmental Resources. Thereafter, it became an independent, quasi-judicial agency. It is authorized to have five members who function as administrative law judges. Board members are appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the Senate for six-year terms; the Governor designates one member as chairperson. The Board has jurisdiction over appeals from orders, permits, licenses, or decisions of the Department of Environmental Resources (until 1995) and of the Department's two successors, the Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, since 1995. It holds hearings and then issues judgments or otherwise disposes of the appeals by final order. All accessions to this record group are unprocessed and consist primarily of case files.

Record Group 69: Records of the Pennsylvania Emergency Manajement Agency

The State Council of Civil Defense was established by Act of 3-19-1951, P.L. 28, that repealed the law of 3-19-1941, March 19, 1941 establishing an earlier Council of Civil Defense. Act 323 of 1978 created the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency, under which the Council was placed and renamed the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Council. The Council establishes policy and direction for the emergency management program statewide. The council membership has changed over the years, but now includes the governor, the lieutenant governor, the secretaries of the various state departments with emergency response and recovery capabilities, the leadership of the General Assembly, and representatives of county and municipal government associations, labor, business and industry, and the private sector. The council meets at least three times a year and within 72 hours after the governor declares a disaster emergency. Historically, the lieutenant governor serves as the chair of the council. The council also reviews and approves certain actions required under other laws, such as the Radiation Protection Act. Under that Act the council approves annual programs of work and spending plans for counties in emergency planning zones by the nine nuclear power generating stations affecting the Commonwealth. The Council also acts as the State Emergency Response Commission, which oversees the various hazardous materials emergency preparedness and response requirements contained in the federal Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA Title III).

Minutes and Agendas, 1951-1985 (3 cartons, 1 box) {series #69.1} are for either special meetings, meetings that pertained to an immediate disaster or other pressing issues Special meeting minutes are not accompanied by an agenda and after 1972 the Council ceased printing out separate agendas altogether. Meeting topics include flooding, radiation, school and community fallout shelters, emergency supplies, personnel, budgets and droughts. Major crises mentioned are the Cuban Missile crisis, Three Mile Island, the 1974 national trucker strike, 1977 flooding and the 1979-1980 drought. Also included are letters of appointment from the Governor and the General Assembly.


MANUSCRIPT GROUPS

Manuscript Group 2: Business Records Collection, 1681-1963 (40 cu. ft.)

This manuscript group contains private records of a wide variety of businesses in Pennsylvania including turnpike, canal, and railroad companies; iron forges and furnaces; and numerous individuals involved in banking, farming, lumbering, shipping, store keeping, tavern keeping, etc. The collection is divided into Accounts of Iron Forges and Plantations, 1681, 1731-1913; Accounts of Individuals and Companies, 1700-1960; Transportation Accounts, 1795-1923; and Unidentified Accounts, 1739-1914. Accounts of Iron Forges and Plantations, 1681, 1737 - 1913. Energy-related materials may be found among records relating to the operation of iron forges, water and steam powered lumber and grist mills, some transportation companies, and firms involved in mining activities.

Manuscript Group 11: Map Collection, 1681-1973 (48 cu. ft.)

This manuscript group contains more than one thousand historical maps that provide information on the evolutionary development of counties, towns, and cities, boundaries, transportation arteries, topography, and geology. Some maps depict the locations of iron forges, iron furnaces, coal mines, gristmills, sawmills, lumber camps, and other types of industries and businesses. Martha L. Simonetti's Descriptive List of the Map Collection in the Pennsylvania State Archives (Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1976) provides a brief description for each of the first 714 maps that were accessioned into this Manuscript Group.

Manuscript Group 48: Fall Brook Railroad and Coal Company Records, 1768-1938 (bulk 1819-1938) (345 cu. ft.)

These records of the business and financial interests of the Magee family, Bath , New York , consists primarily of the records of the Fall Brook Coal Company and the Fall Brook Railway Company. Born near Easton , Pennsylvania , John Magee (b. 1794, d. 1868) took up residence in Bath , Steuben County , New York , in 1816. Between 1818 and 1826 he served as constable and collector of Bath , deputy sheriff, high sheriff, and census marshal for Steuben County and served two terms in congress between 1827 and 1831. In 1854, John Magee became the owner of the Corning and Blossburg Railroad which was incorporated one month later as the Blossburg and Corning Railroad. The Blossburg and Corning was descended from the Tioga Coal, Iron, Mining and Manufacturing Company which had been incorporated under the laws of New York in 1828 with power to construct slack-water navigation from the Pennsylvania line to the junction of the Tioga and Chemung rivers near Corning , New York . The company was authorized in 1833 to build a railroad from the termination of the Chemung canal feeder to the Pennsylvania line and was renamed the Corning and Blossburg Railroad in 1851.

In 1851 Magee obtained the lease for the coal mines at Blossburg , Pennsylvania held earlier by Mallory & Bostwick of Corning , New York . Tiring of working under a lease, his son, Duncan S. Magee, began searching for new coal lands in 1856 which resulted in the discovery of coal near Fall Brook, Tioga County , Pennsylvania and the organization of the Fall Brook Coal Company in 1859. The discovery of coal near Wilson 's Creek in 1866 led to the construction of the Wellsboro and Lawrenceville Railroad which was completed to the mines at Antrim in 1872. The Blossburg and Corning and the Wellsboro and Lawrenceville Railroads were consolidated to form the Corning , Cowanesque and Antrim Railway Company that was incorporated under the laws of New York and Pennsylvania in 1873. The Cowanesque Valley Railroad was purchased by the Corning , Cowanesque and Antrim Railroad in 1874. The name of the Corning , Cowanesque and Antrim was changed in 1892 to that of the Fall Brook Railway Company.

When John Magee died in 1868, his son, Duncan S. Magee, directed the family enterprises until his death one year later, whereupon he was succeeded by his brother, George J. Magee. In order to provide a cheaper outlet for the coal mined at Fall Brook, Antrim, and Morris Run, George J. Magee undertook the construction of the Syracuse , Geneva and Corning Railroad that was completed from Corning to Geneva in 1877. The Jersey Shore , Pine Creek and Buffalo Railway, later renamed the Pine Creek Railway, joined the Fall Brook system upon its completion in 1883. George J. Magee died in 1897 and was succeeded as president of the coal and railway companies by his son, John Magee. In 1899 the Fall Brook Railway Company, the Syracuse , Geneva and Corning Railway Company, and the Pine Creek Railway Company were leased to the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad for 999 years. In 1909 these three roads were consolidated to form the Geneva , Corning and Southern Railroad Company which was immediately leased to the New York Central. The primary records in this manuscript group are minute books, letter press books, general correspondence, and account books.

Manuscript Group 85: J. Horace McFarland Papers, 1859-1866, 1898-1951 (20 cu. ft.)

J. Horace McFarland (1859-1948) was born in McAlisterville, Juniata County , on Sepptember 29, 1859 but resided in Harrisburg for most of his life. During the opening decades of the Twentieth Century he emerged as an articulate advocate of the "City Beautiful" movement that resulted in such progressive improvements as paved streets in Harrisburg , the City Island water filtration plant, Riverfront Park , Wildwood Lake and associated flood control projects. A noted early conservationist, McFarland also campaigned vigorously for the preservation of Niagara Falls , the development of national parks, roadside beautification and against the blight of billboards. Together with Mira Lloyd Dock, McFarland was a seminal figure in the growth the national "City Beautiful" movement. As a founder of the American Civic Association, he took the "Harrisburg Plan" on the road to cities all across the United States .

McFarland fought for the establishment of the National Park Service and promoted city planning and zoning to prevent urban sprawl. McFarland, owner of the Mount Pleasant Printing Company in Harrisburg , was also recognized for his work as a printer, as well as a master gardener whose books and photographs on roses, trees and other subjects were famous across the United States . A founder and president of the American Rose Society, he also served as the editor of the "Beautiful America" department of the Ladies Home Journal and as chairman of the State Art Commission for many years. His home and garden in the Bellevue Park section of Harrisburg was an internationally famous testing ground for hundreds of new plant species.

McFarland became a central figure in the fight led by John Muir and the Sierra Club to prevent San Francisco from damming the water at Hetch Hetchy Valley in the Yosemite National Park for the city’s use. But in December of 1913, after five years of hearings and debates, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill giving San Francisco access to the Hetch Hetchy Valley . McFarland, though exhausted by the failed campaign, rallied quickly and with typical tenacity worked to turn defeat into a new opportunity. Within a few days, he wrote a personal letter to President Wilson in which he paved the way for getting the president’s support for the development of a national parks system. Congressman John Raker of California became a sponsor of the bill proposing the creation of the National Park Service; and

Franklin K. Lane
, who was city attorney for San Francisco during the Hetch Hetchy conflict, became McFarland’s ally when the National Park Service was first proposed.

America ’s forty-one national parks and monuments were managed by various authorities—including the Department of the Interior, the Department of Agriculture, and the Army. McFarland was among the first of those to suggest placing the parks and monuments under one unified bureau within the Department of the Interior in order to improve overall management and policy-making. In 1910, he began rallying support both within the government and from the public for this unification, gaining the favor of Secretary of the Interior Richard A. Ballinger. McFarland drafted the first version of a bill and then suggested calling in the nationally known landscape architect, Frederick Law Olmstead, Jr., for further drafts. Six years and three secretaries of the interior later the National Park Service was established in 1916. McFarland served on the Department of the Interior’s Educational Advisory Board for the parks and also as a member of the National Park Trust Fund until his death in 1948. There are many records in this manuscript group relating to the Niagara Falls and Heych Hetchy projects and much that documents the beginnings of the organized national conservation movement. 


Manuscript Group 110: Schuylkill Navigation Company Records, 1815-1951 (90 cu. ft.)

Telling the story of a canal which had already been in use for a few years before the Commonwealth launched the Pennsylvania Canal in 1826, these records reflect significant eras of inland waterway transportation and commerce, the enterprise of late eighteenth-century and early nineteenth-century Pennsylvania, the interrelationships of navigation companies and railroad companies, and the eventual supplanting by the railroads of transportation services long performed in Pennsylvania by canals. The records also provide some information on the period in the 1790s when Robert Morris and other Philadelphians were promoting the Delaware and Schuylkill Canal Company that was eventually made unnecessary by the Schuylkill Navigation Company and the Schuylkill and Susquehanna Canal Company, the latter which was supplanted by the Union Canal Company which established its artificial waterway in the valleys of the Tulpehocken and the Swatara to connect the city of Reading on the Schuylkill with Middletown on the Susquehanna. They also reveal the relationships with the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company, later known as the Reading Company, with both the Schuylkill Navigation Company and the Susquehanna Canal Company, commonly called the Susquehanna and Tidewater, descending along the bank of the Susquehanna River from opposite Columbia and Wrightsville to Havre de Grace, Maryland.

There are maps and map books that document the early years of exploration and construction. Also present are reports of rainfall and weather conditions along the canal; descriptions of conditions at dams, bridges, and locks, or on towing paths; registers of boats, their tonnages, and destinations; of amounts of water power dispensed; of heights of water at dams; of toll charges and regulations; and of costs of repair and maintenance. The problems of finance and the solutions adopted by the Board of Managers are revealed in the books of subscribers to stocks, the books of loans and of dividends, the minutes of stockholders' meetings, the ledgers of business performed, the letter books and letters of the entire succession of presidents of the company, and the printed annual reports (few in number) of the Board of Managers.

Manuscript Group 148: Blubaker Coal Company Records, 1888-1942 (5 cu. ft.)

This manuscript group contains Minutes, 1901-37; reports, 1888-1942; and correspondence, 1895-1938, of the Blubaker Coal Company that was organized in Cambria County in 1887. The correspondence also sheds light on the operations of other contemporary coal companies operating in Pennsylvania . Considerable correspondence relates to such stockholders and officers as James A. Beaver, Thomas B. Beaver, Albert E. Blackburn, Samuel W. Fleming, Jr., Daniel H. Hastings, Ross A. Hickok, James A. McClain, and J. L. Spangler.

Manuscript Group 154: H.H. Houston Estate Papers, 1895-1964 (121 cu. ft.)

Papers of the estate of Henry Howard Houston (b. 1820, d. 1895), one of Philadelphia 's wealthiest and most prominent citizens who was involved in railroad, steamship, mining, and land development enterprises. Henry Howard Houston's great grandfather, John Houston, migrated from northern Ireland about 1725 and settled in what became Lancaster County , Pennsylvania . Upon his death in 1769, the elder John Houston owned a farm exceeding 1,000 acres in the Pequea Valley of Lancaster County. John Houston's eldest son, who was also named John, was born in Lancaster County in 1743 and attended Glasgow University where he received his certificate of attendance signed by Adam Smith, author of The Wealth of Nations . Subsequently earning a degree in medicine from the Medical School of the College of Philadelphia (now the University of Pennsylvania ) in 1768, the younger John Houston became a surgeon, along with four of his brothers, and served in the American Revolution where one of his brothers was killed at the Battle of Paoli. After the war, the younger John Houston acquired a large landed estate near present day Wrightsville in York County where he died in 1809. (He was married to Susanna Wright Houston (1752-1829) of Wright's Ferry, now Columbia , Pennsylvania , and one of his daughters was Martha Houston who married Joseph Mifflin and was the paternal grandmother of the noted Columbia poet and painter Lloyd Mifflin. For additional material on Lloyd Mifflin at the Pennsylvania State Archives see the Lloyd Mifflin Collection, Manuscript Group 165.) John Houston's son, Samuel Houston, was also trained as a physician at the Medical School of the University of Pennsylvania but apparently gave up the practice of medicine on account of ill health and retired to manage his properties at Columbia , Pennsylvania .

Samuel Houston's son, Henry Howard Houston, worked at various jobs, including a stint at James Buchanan's Lucinda iron furnace in 1843, then for D. Lee and Company from 1847 to 1850, and finally for the Pennsylvania Railroad, where he was selected to organize the company's pioneer freight business from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh. He subsequently organized the American Steamship Company and the International Navigation Company, operating more than twenty ocean going steamships and many more that plied the waters of the Great Lakes. HHH (who was familiarly known as "H cubed" or "Cubie") was also a successful investor in gold and silver mines in Colorado and Montana and in the oil fields of western Pennsylvania, an investor in Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, long the largest land holder within the city limits of Philadelphia, and the developer of Chestnut Hill, Wissahickon Heights, and Roxborough. He also financed the construction of St. Martin-in-the-Fields Church in Chestnut Hill and St. Peter's Church in Germantown , and was a trustee of the University of Pennsylvania . He erected a 30-room stone mansion modeled on an Irish castle that he called Druim Moir (Gaelic for "Great Ridge") for his private residence. Situated amid 52 acres of lawn and woodland that included a small deer park , the mansion was surrounded by a number of other buildings including an older farm house, an entrance lodge, and two tenant dwellings and was connected to downtown Philadelphia by a new rail line. For related materials, see also the Samuel F. Houston Letterpress Copybooks (MG-349) at the Pennsylvania State Archives, the Henry Howard Houston Estate Papers at the University of Pennsylvania Archives and Records Center, the Smith Family Papers at the American Philosophical Society (Ms. Coll. 76), and the Mifflin Family Papers among the Franklin and Marshall College Special Collections (Ms. Coll. 32) at Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

Manuscript Group 155: Curtin Iron Works Records, 1810-1941 (6 cu. ft.)

Records consist primarily of cash books, day books, ledgers, order books, time and pay roll books, and other account books of the Eagle Iron Works, Centre County , which was owned and operated by the Curtin family of Bellefonte. Included also is .5 cu. ft. of correspondence and legal papers pertaining in part to the iron works and in part to the Curtin family. Roland Curtin, Sr., father of Civil War governor, Andrew Gregg Curtin, started the business in 1807, when he and Moses Boggs selected a site and constructed a forge on Bald Eagle Creek about six miles from Bellefonte. He built the Old Eagle Furnace in 1817-18 (abandoned in 1836); a rolling mill in the late 1820s; and Martha Furnace, located about eleven miles west of Bellefonte on Bald Eagle Creek, in the early 1830s. Roland Curtin, Sr., operated the business under his own name until 1828, when the name of the firm was changed to Roland Curtin and Sons to account for the participation of three of his sons, Austin, James, and Roland. The second Eagle Furnace was constructed in 1848, two years before Roland's death. The family continued the operation of the iron works well into the twentieth century

Manuscript Group 163: Hubertus M. Cummings Collection Collection , 1929-1957 (3 cu. ft.)

Papers of Dr. Hubertis M. Cummings, historian and author, authority on Pennsylvania 's canals, and at various times in the years prior to his death in 1963 a research historian with the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission and the Bureau Land Records, Department of Internal Affairs. Present are two unpublished manuscripts: "State-Owned Canals in Pennsylvania ," 963 pp.; and "The Pennsylvania Canal," 156 pp.

Among the items present are "The Allegheny Portage Railroad," manuscript of 31 pp., leaflet printed by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 4 pp.; "The Allegheny Portage Railroad, Built, 1831-1834, operated, 1834-1857," manuscript of 27 pp.; "The Earlier Railroads of Pennsylvania," manuscript of 24 pp.; "The Earliest Plan for a Passenger Railroad," incomplete manuscript, 51 pp.; "Elder Woodruff's Day on the Allegheny Portage Railroad, manuscript of 6 pp.; "James D. Harris, Canal Engineer, and His assistant, William B. Foster, Jr.," manuscript of 22 pp.; "James D. Harris, Canal Engineer: Notes on His Papers and Related Canal Papers," reprint from Pennsylvania History, Vol. XVIII, No. 1 (1951), 31-45; "John August Roebling and the Public Works of Pennsylvania," manuscript of 78 pp.; "Lafayette Rides By," manuscript of 3 pp.; "Modest Proposal of John August Roebling," manuscript of 12 pp.; "Pennsylvania: Network of Canal Ports," manuscript of 13 pp.; The Pennsylvania Canals, leaflet printed by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 4 pp.; "Pennsylvania Canals-Thumb Nail Sketches," manuscript of 100 pp.; "New York Canals and Pennsylvania Canals," 44 pp.; "North Branch Division of the Pennsylvania Canal," 16 pp.; and "Some Notes of the State-Owned Columbia and Philadelphia Railroad," 14 pp.

Manuscript Group 174: Historical Society of Berks County Deposit of Records of the Union Canal Company of Pennsylvania, 1792-1885 (19 cu. ft.)* (These materials have been returned to the Historical Society of Berks County)

Surveys for a canal that would connect the Schuylkill and Susquehanna rivers, a project many years earlier proposed by William Penn, were undertaken in 1769. Forced into the background during the Revolution, plans were revived in the early 1790's and an actual start in construction was made in 1794. Problems developed, however, and the venture failed. Finally, in 1811, more favorable conditions were evident, a charter to build the waterway was issued to the newly formed Union Canal Company and definite operations were initiated. Completed in 1827, the Union Canal reached from Middletown on the Susquehanna to Reading on the Schuylkill . Papers include records of two of the Union Canal Company's predecessors, the Delaware and Schuylkill Canal Company and the Schuylkill and Susquehanna Canal Company.

Manuscript Group 175: Pine Grove Furnace Collection, 1785-1914 (60 cu. ft.)

The records of the Pine Grove Furnace, Cumberland County are connected with the operation of the furnace. Built around 1770 by George Stevenson, Robert Thornburgh, and John Arthur, Pine Grove Furnace was deeded to Michael Ege and Thomas and Joseph Thornburgh, sons of Robert Thornburgh, in 1782. In the early nineteenth century, Michael Ege became sole owner of the furnace, which continued to be operated by members of the Ege family until 1838, when it was sold to C. B. Penrose and Frederick Watts. Operated successfully by William M. Watts, between 1845 and 1864, it was sold to William G. Moorehead in 1864, who in turn deeded the furnace to the newly organized South Mountain Iron Company. In 1877 the iron company folded and the Pine Grove property was purchased by Jackson C. Fuller. That same year Fuller transferred the property to the South Mountain Mining and Iron Company whose major stockholders included John M. Butler, Jay Cooke, Edward J. Williams, Barclay J. Woodward, and William H. Woodward. In 1891 several tracts of Pine Grove land in Adams and Cumberland counties were conveyed to the Fuller Brick and Slate Company, Ltd., which manufactured bricks up to around 1913. In about 1895, the Pine Grove Furnace ceased operations.

Over half of the collection's 60 cu. ft. consist of letter press books, general correspondence, and account books, (cash books, ledgers, journals, payroll books, etc.) of the South Mountain Mining and Iron Company, 1877-1914, and the Fuller Brick and Slate Company, Ltd., 1891-1914. Records of the early operation of the Pine Grove Furnace consist entirely of account books (bloom books, cash books, day books, ledgers, journals, provision books, time books, ware books, etc.) starting in the year 1785. These include records of Thornburgh, Arthur and Company; Ege, Thornburgh and Arthur Company; and Peter Ege. The collection also contains account books of the following companies and furnaces: Cumberland Furnace, Laurel Forge, South Mountain Iron Company, Cumberland Valley Railroad, Gettysburg and Harrisburg Railroad, Hunter's Run and Slate Belt Railroad, and the South Mountain Railroad.

The correspondence files, 10 cu. ft., and letter press books, 45 vols. of the South Mountain Mining and Iron Company, the Fuller Brick and Slate Company, Ltd., and Hunter's Run and Slate Belt Railroad contain generally routine business letters. Included among the correspondents are George F. Baer, Isaac B. Brown, John M. Butler, Simon Cameron, Robert S. Conklin, Jay Cooke, Aaron K. Dunkel, Jackson C. Fuller, A. C. Givler, John F. Hartranft, William 0. Hickok, Joseph Kalbfus, Horace A. Keefer, Thomas B. Kennedy, J. T. Rothrock, Thomas J. Stewart, S. R. Still, Charles D. Walcott, Barclay J. Woodward, and William H. Woodward.

Manuscript Group 182: Lebanon County Historical Society Deposit of Manuscript Collections, 1757-1940 (207 cu. ft.)

Consists of 34 separate collections pertaining mainly to the history of Lebanon County , most prominent of which in both in size and importance, is the Coleman Collection that covers the period from 1757 to 1940. The first Coleman to become involved in the industry was Robert Coleman (b. 1748, d. 1825), who came to Pennsylvania from Ireland around 1764. He was employed by Peter Grubb at Hopewell Forge and by James Old at Speedwell Forge and Reading Furnace. In 1773 he married Anne Old, daughter of James Old, and for the next three years rented Salford Forge near Norristown . He rented Elizabeth Furnace in 1776, living there until his retirement in 1809, whereupon he took up residence in Lancaster . Robert Coleman served as an officer in the Pennsylvania Militia during the Revolutionary War and was a member of the state convention which framed the Constitution of 1790. He was a member of the legislature, a delegate to the convention to ratify the federal constitution, twice a presidential elector, and an associate judge for Lancaster County .

Coleman's will left to his four sons, William, Edward, Thomas Bird, and James, considerable holdings in property, which included his dominant interests in the Cornwall Ore Hills; Colebrook, Cornwall , and Elizabeth furnaces; and Hopewell , Martick, Speedwell, and Spring forges. William and Edward sold their interests in enterprises to their brother, Thomas Bird Coleman. Consequently, the collection records relate primarily to the business interests of the descendants of Thomas Bird and James Coleman. James Coleman had five children, Robert, George Dawson, Ann, Sarah, and Harriet. Thomas Bird Coleman had six children, Anne C., Margaret C., Isabella, Sarah H., Robert W., and William Coleman. James's daughters' interests eventually passed to their brothers, Robert and George Dawson. Isabella and Robert died leaving no children.

The collection contains minutes, reports, letterpress books, correspondence, legal papers, photographs, numerous accounts (blast books, cash books, coal and coke books, day books, freight books, journals, ledgers, order books, ore books, pay roll books, pig iron books, time books, etc.), and various other series. It is divided into the following sub-groups: Robert Coleman and Heirs, 1757-1859; R. W. & W. Coleman, 1821-80; R. W. Coleman and Company, 1849-68; R. W. Coleman's Heirs and Company, 1849-93; Robert H. Coleman, 1850-1900; Lebanon Furnaces, 1857-1900; Cornwall Ore Bank Company, 1863-1916; Sarah H. Coleman, 1866-1902; North Cornwall Furnace, 1871-1901; Freeman, Coleman, and Buckingham, 1871-1940; and Robesonia Iron Company, Ltd., 1885-1927.

Operational records can also be found for the Bird Coleman Furnaces erected next to the Cornwall Ore Banks by R. W. Coleman's Heirs and Company; Colebrook Furnace that was built by Robert Coleman on Conewago Creek about six miles southwest of Cornwall in 1791; Colebrook Furnaces that were erected in 1880-81 by Robert H. Coleman in West Lebanon Township and sold to the Lackawanna Iron and Steel Company in 1894; the Cornwall Anthracite Furnaces that were rected in Cornwall Township by Robert W. Coleman and his brother William Coleman (sons of Thomas Bird Coleman) in 1849-52, that were purchased by Robert H. Coleman (son of William Coleman) who operated them until 1894 when they were sold to the Lackwanna Iron and Steel Company; the Cornwall Furnace completed in 1742 by Peter Grubb that came under the control of Robert Coleman in 1798. Ownership of this furnace eventually passed to Anne C. Alden, Margaret C. Freeman, and Sarah H. Coleman. The manufacture of cold-blast charcoal iron finally ceased at this site in 1883.

Records are also present for the Cornwall Iron Company, Ltd, a partnership formed by Anne C. Alden, Margaret C. Freeman, Sarah H. Coleman, W. C. Freeman, E. C. Freeman, and R. Percy Alden, which began operations in 1886 having been assigned control of Cornwall Furnace (no longer operational), Bird Coleman furnaces, and Donaghmore Furnace; The Cornwall Iron Company that was incorporated in 1901 by E. C. Freeman, Isabel C. Freeman, Margaret C. Buckingham, R. Percy Alden, and Sarah C. Derby and controlled the Bird Coleman furnaces and North Cornwall Furnace, all of which were idle by 1917; The Cornwall Ore Bank Company formed in 1864 by the owners (tenants in common) of the Cornwall Ore Hills to insure the fair distribution of profits and to facilitate mining operations; Elizabeth Furnace that was rented in 1776 by Robert Coleman and later purchased by Coleman and which eventually passed to James Coleman and then to George Dawson Coleman; the Lebanon Furnaces  that were completed in 1847 by Robert and George Dawson Coleman (sons of James Coleman) located on the Union Canal about one mile northwest of Lebanon; North Cornwall Furnace erected by Margaret C. Freeman in 1872-73 in Cornwall Township . In 1898 it was leased to the Lackawanna Iron and Steel Compan Company; and the Robesonia Iron Company, Ltd. that was formed in April of 1885 by William R. White, Mrs. Henry P. Borie, W. C. Freeman, E. C. Freeman, Isabel C. Freeman, and Mrs. B. H. Buckingham, with W. C. Freeman as first chairman.

Also present are records pertaining to the following the Bethlehem Steel Company; various canal operations; the Colebrook Estate; Conowingo Furnace; Cornwall and Lebanon Railroad Company; Cornwall Estate; Cornwall Railroad Company; Crumwold Furnace; Emaus Furnace; Fairview Farm; Jacksonville, Tampa, and Key-West Railway Company (4 cu. ft. of minutes, reports, letter press books, correspondence, accounts, blueprints, and miscellaneous advertisements pertaining to this company of which Robert H. Coleman was president and principal owner); Lackawanna Iron and Steel Company; Lebanon Iron Company; Lochiel Furnace; North Cornwall Estate; North Lebanon Railroad Company; Pennsylvania Steel Company; and Speedwell Farm.

 

Manuscript Group 203: Cornwall Furnace Collection, 1768-1940 (2 cu. ft.)

This manuscript group consists primarily of primarily of 28 account books for the period 1768-1892 pertaining to Cornwall Furnace and also to Charming Forge, Colebrook Furnace, Hellem (Helmstead) Forge, Hopewell Forge, Speedwell Forge, and Spring Forge. Included is a letter book, 1879-80, of A. Wilhelm, attorney for R. W. Coleman's Heirs and Company; a photostatic copy of a brief of title to the Cornwall Ore Banks and Mine Hills for 1932, blueprints depicting the layout of the Bethlehem Iron Company property in south Bethlehem dated 1901, and specifications for a proposed music hall for Cornwall to be built by Robert H. Coleman. Erected by Peter Grubb in 1742, Cornwall Furnace came under the control of Robert Coleman in 1798 and remained in the Coleman family until 1932, when the property was donated to the Commonwealth.

Manuscript Group 219: Philadelphia Commercial Museum Photograph Collection [ca. 1840-1954] (12 cu. ft.)

The Philadelphia Commercial Museum was founded in 1894 to promote American and foreign commerce and to collect information concerning the products of world trade. The name of the museum was changed in 1966 to the Museum of the Philadelphia Civic Center . These photographic files, arranged by counties and by subjects that include Pennsylvania scenes, Philadelphia scenes, nature, agriculture, and industry (airplane, aluminum, automobile, brick, cement, clothing, coal, electric, fur, gas, glass, iron and steel, lumber, mining, paper, petroleum, pottery, printing, radio, railroad, rubber, shipbuilding, street car, telephone, etc.). Also present are images depicting such types of transportation as air, canal, coach and wagon, mail, railroad, river, sailboat, and steamship as well as 29 prints by William H. Rau Photos from Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, [ca. 1840-1854].

Manuscript Group 245: Drake Well Museum Collections, [ca. 1847-1973] (350 cu. ft.)

Housed at the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission's Drake Well Museum , Titusville , these collections contain original manuscripts, newspapers, and other source materials pertaining primarily to the history of the petroleum industry. A partial breakdown of the holdings includes:

  • Letters and other papers, 50 items, of Dr. Francis B. Brewer.

  • John J. Carter Collection, 1864-1911, 190 items, including correspondence, deeds, and miscellaneous papers.

  • R. D. Fletcher Collection, 1847-70, 575 items, featuring family correspondence, etc.

  • Mather Photographic Collection, ca. 1860-90, embracing 2,500 prints, 2,761 identified negatives, and 1,061 unidentified negatives. Photographs made by John A. Mather, photographer of the oil region.

  • Joseph Reid Collection, 458 items, including papers of the Joseph Reid Gas Engine Company.

  • Robert Torpedo Company Papers, 1865-81, 115 cu. ft.

  • John J. Scheide Papers, 1860-90, 8 cu. ft.

  • Ida M. Tarbell Papers, 5 cu. ft. Placed here are those papers of Miss Tarbell which relate to the history of the petroleum industry. Her other papers are in the Allegheny College Library, Meadville .

  • James M. Townsend Collection, 166 items, including reports of Edwin L. Drake.

  • Valvoline Collection, 183 items, embracing miscellaneous papers of the Valvoline Oil Company.

  • Peter Wilson Papers, 1861-70, .5 cu. ft.

  • Miscellaneous papers, including early scrapbooks pertaining to the oil industry; Edwin L. Drake's narrative of his 1858 trip to Titusville; Interstate Oil Compact Commission material; hotel registers of Titusville, 1865-66, and of Pithole, 1866; maps of the early oil region; oil company prospectuses and stock certificates, 225 items; and records of oil exchanges in Titusville, 1871-81, and Oil City, 1876-1908.

Newspaper Collection (originals unless microfilm is specified):

New York Daily Tribune, 1859-68 (21 vols.).

Pennsylvania :

Crawford County :

Meadville Tribune Republican , 1884-1927.

Titusville American Citizen , 1877-93.

Titusville Daily Courier, 1871-77.

Titusville Daily Herald , 1866-1911 (part on microfilm).

Titusville Weekly Herald , 1871-80.

Dauphin County :

Harrisburg Morning Call, 1886-87.

Erie County :

Erie Daily Dispatch , September-December 1865.

McKean County :

Bradford Daily Record , 1890-1908.

Bradford Era, 1879-1904.

Bradford Sunday Herald , 1904-09, 1926-42.

Bradford Evening Star , 1888-1939.

Venango County :

Franklin Venango Spectator, 1851-96 (part on microfilm).

Oil City Derrick , 1871-99.

Oil City Register , May 12, 1864-December 22, 1870.

Petroleum Centre Daily Record , 1868-71.

Pithole Daily Record, 1865-66 (also on microfilm).

Warren County :

Tidioute News , 1881-1919.

Tidioute Press , 1882, 1920-27.

Periodical Collection:

  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 1938-74.

  • The Century Magazine, vol. 11-40, November, 1886-May, 1901.

  • Frank Leslie's Popular Monthlv, vols. 4, 5, 6, July, 1877-June, 1878.

  • Harper's Magazine, vol. 60-101, December, 1879-November, 1901.

  • National Petroleum News, 1918-43, 1946-51, 1973 (144 vols.).

  • Oil and Gas Journal, 1915-49.

  • The Petroleum Age, vol. 1-6, 1881-87.

  • Petroleum Gazette, 1897-1917 (25 vols.).

  • The Petroleum Monthly, 1870-72.

  • Petroleum Processing, vol. 1-12, 1946-57.

  • Petroleum Week, 1955-61 (12 vols.).

  • Producer's Monthly, vol. 1-5, 1936-41.

  • Scribner's Monthly Magazine, vol. 5-17, 1889-95.

Manuscript Group 260: Henry Clay Furnace Records, 1843-1916 (1 cu. ft.)

Records of Henry Clay Furnace that was administered by the Berks County firm of Eckert & Bro. (Harry S. and George B. Eckert) containing day books, 1844-45 (2 vols.); ledgers, 1851-55, 1873-1916 (3 vols.); a pay roll book, 1891-99;  a sales book, 1866-95;  a receipt book, 1873-99; a charge book, 1887-99; a deed book, 1843-87; and bill books, 1879-96 (3 vols.)

.

Manuscript Group 274: Lehigh Valley Railroad (LVRR) Company records, [1849-1962 and undated] (367 cu. ft.)

Originally known as the Delaware , Lehigh, Schuylkill and Susquehanna Railroad, the LVRR competed for the lucrative anthracite coal transport trade in northeastern Pennsylvania . It dominated the industry in eastern Pennsylvania , New York and New Jersey , becoming known as the "route of the Black Diamond." The Delaware, Lehigh, Schuylkill and Susquehanna Railroad was first suggested by prominent members of Lehigh and Northampton Counties, and the bill was carried through the legislature by Dr. Jesse Samuel, then a representative from Lehigh County. In August 1847, the necessary certificate to the Governor was signed for the purpose of obtaining a charter of incorporation. The name of the company was changed to Lehigh Valley Railroad Company by an act of assembly on January 7, 1853 . Although the railroad also carried passengers, it depended mainly on transporting coal as its source of profit. The demise of the coal industry and the rise of automobile and air transportation in the 1950s led to its financial ruin and a takeover by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1960. These records were acquired over the course of several years from the main offices of the LVRR.

The bulk of the records are 703 volumes of minutes, reports, .journals, ledgers, cash books, company history, records of lands owned by LVRR and other records pertaining to everyday operations. Major series include Minutes of the Board of Directors, 1850-1962 (which, among other things, contain information on accidents); Annual Reports, 1852-1975; Trustee Files, [ca. 1900-1982]; Cash Books 1855-1952; a Ledger, 1853-1955; and Real Estate Department Records, 1878-1951. Records of Subsidiary Companies consisting of 1,421 volumes are organized by transportation companies, 1851-1950, and non-transportation, 1844-1947, and then arranged alphabetically by company name. For each company there are minutes and/or financial accounts. Also included are 3 cu. ft. (over 500 items) of photographic negatives taken by staff photographers. Subjects include construction of the Claremont Terminal, Jersey City, N.J., 1917-1923; the ruins of the Morris Canal near Washington , N.J. ; the 1902 Lehigh River flood near Easton ; and the construction of an unidentified engine and freight house, probably in Buffalo , in 1915.

Manuscript Group 286: Penn Central Railroad Collection, [ca. 1835-1968] (4,800 cu. ft.)

The bulk of this collection consists of the records of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, [ca. 1847-1968]. Incorporated on April 13, 1846 , the Pennsylvania Railroad became by the turn of the century the "standard railroad of the world" and the largest single employer of men and women in the United States . Sometimes referred to as the world's first modern corporation, the PRR handled more business transactions and raised more capital than any other public or private sector organization of its time. The Penn Central Transportation Company was formed in 1968 with a merger of the PRR and the New York Central Railroad. It went bankrupt in 1970, and was succeeded by the Penn Central Corporation.

Part of this collection was received at the State Archives as gifts from Consolidated Rail Corporation in 1990, part as deposits with Penn Central Corporation and Conrail in 1986, part through the distribution of 8,000 to 10,000 linear feet of an original 400,000 linear feet of records as part of the Penn Central Records Project, 1984-1986, a federally-funded effort involving eight major libraries, part from the Altoona Public Library, and part through the Penn Central Auction of 1972.

The collection at the State Archives contains materials relating to business, transportation and labor history. Included in this collection are the administrative and financial records of the PRR Comptroller, Presidents, Secretary (including records of the Board of Directors and PRR Library), Vice President of Finance (including records of the Treasurer), Vice President of Real Estate, other Vice Presidents, Voluntary Relief Department and hundreds of Subsidiary Lines. Also included are over 1,000 cubic ft. of technical and engineering records of the Vice President of Operation, including registers, historical cards and specification books of the Chief of Motive Power and Supervisor of Motive Power Expenditure; mechanical engineering drawings (tracings and blueprints) of the Mechanical Engineer, and architectural drawings of the Chief Engineer. Also present is general correspondence, 1860-1968; presidential correspondence, 1899-1954; minutes of the salary committee, 1874-1881; and record of employees, 1899-1912. (For a complete listing see the extensive Search Room listing in binders).

The photographs are arranged into three series: the General Office Library Photograph File, donated to the State Archives in 1976, which includes a historical reference file of PRR photographs, ca. 1850-1960; Conrail Mechanical Engineering Department Photograph File was acquired by the State Archives in 1981 and includes nearly 2,000 prints, ca. 1930, primarily builders' views of locomotives and rolling stock interior views; the Penn Central Auction Photographs, obtained by the State Archives in 1972 when Penn Central began divesting its holdings, includes: PRR locomotives, snow and ice conditions, suburban views, and Johnstown Flood of 1889 views, among others. Energy-related materials are only incidental to the collection, involving information concerning different types of locomotive propulsion such as coal-fired steam, diesel engine, and electricity driven locomotives.

Manuscript Group 300: Lackawanna Railway Company Deposit, 1832-1968 (70 cu. ft.)

The Erie Lackawanna Railway that operated between Pennsylvania and New York resulted from the 1960 merger of the Erie Railroad Company and the Delaware , Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company. The Erie Railroad underwent four changes in corporate title prior to this merger, the New York and Erie Railroad Company, 1832-1861; the Erie Railway Company, 1861-1878; the New York , Lake Erie and Western Railroad Company, 1878-1895; and the Erie Railroad Company, 1895-1960.

The records chiefly consist of minute books, accounts and reports of the Erie Lackawanna Railway and its predecessor companies. Included are 140 volumes of Erie Railroad Company real estate records, 1847-1914; minutes of the Pension Board, 1941-1961, the Nominating Committee of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad, and annual reports of the New York and Greenwood Lake Railroad Company, 1879-1895 and the Sharon Railway Company, 1891-1926. The land records include transcribed deeds, abstracts of titles, land drafts, agreements, rights-of-way, and ordinances belonging to the Real Estate Department of the Erie Railroad Company and relating to real estate holdings in Pennsylvania , New Jersey , and Ohio involving the Allegheny, Buffalo , Bradford , New York , Rochester , and Susquehanna Divisions of the Niagara Falls Branch. Also present is a copy of George H. Minor's "The Erie System, Its Organization and Corporate," 1911.


Manuscript Group 311: Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records, 1792-1978 (204 cu. ft.)

The Lehigh Navigation Company was formed in 1798 and the Lehigh Coal Company in 1792. They merged on April 21, 1820 and were incorporated as the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company in 1822. As of 1978 the company no longer operates as a carrier or coal producer but is currently doing business as Gella's Confections Inc. Besides documenting the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company's role in the coal and transportation industries, the records in this collection also document diverse business activities.

The records consist chiefly of Minutes, 1821-1931, Administrative Files, 1801-1950, and Accounts, 1818-1947, of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company and records of ninety-six of its affiliates. Included in the main collection are Agreements, Mortgages, and Leases, 1831-1951; Registers, 1827-1960; Maps, 1820-1959; Stock Ledgers, 1821-1869; Briefs of Title, 1880-1918; Accounts of Lots Sold, 1832-1937; Annual Reports, 1828-1978; Reference Literature, 1822-1972; and Circulars, 1867-1908 of the company.
Besides showing the company's participation in the coal and transportation industries, the records also document such diverse business activities as providing water supplies and shipping services. Representative records of subsidiaries include the Lehigh Coal Mine Company, 1792-1836; Panther Valley Water Company, 1866-1965; Lehigh and New England Railroad Company, 1895-1969; B & M Oil Company, Inc., 1938-1945; Delaware Division Canal Company, 1858-1942; Alliance Coal Mining Company, 1864-1927; Canal Company, 1858-1942;; Automatic Coal Burner Company, 1941-1951; B.M. Liquidating Corporation, 1954-1958; Wilkes-Barre and Scranton Railroad Company, 1886-1963; Split Rock Skeet and Trapshooting Association, Inc., 1961-1963; Nanticoke Railroad Company, 1859-1967; and Eureka Furnace Cleaning Company, Inc., 1929-1932.

Affilliated railroad companies for whom records are held include the Allentown Terminal Railroad Company, Bethlehem and Belvedere Railroad Company, Campbell Hall Connecting Railroad Company, Central Railroad Company of New Jersey, Crane Railroad Company, Lehigh and Water Gap Railroad Company, Leihigh and Lackawanna Railroad Company, Lehigh and New England Railroad Company, Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad Company, Nanticoke Railroad Company, Nesquehoning Valley Railroad Company, Northampton Railroad Company, Panther Creek Railroad Company, Popchuck Railroad Company, Treskcow Railroad Company, Wilkes-Barre and Scranton Railroad Company, and Wind Gap and Delaware Railroad Company.

Manuscript Group 322: Anthracite Coal Strike Commission Records, 1902-1903 (3 cu. ft.)

The Anthracite Coal Strike Commission was appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt on Oct. 16, 1902 as an investigative commission dealing with labor relations. The records include partial proceedings of the Anthracite Coal Strike Commission, 1902-1903, appointed to inquire into, consider, and pass judgment upon questions in connection with the Great Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902.

Manuscript Group 339: Cornwall Ore Bank Company Records, 1802-1935, 1954 (59.8 cu. ft.)

Formed in 1864 by the owners of the Cornwall hills ore banks to ensure the fair distribution of profits from iron ore mining operations, the Cornwall Ore Bank Company was a successor to various owners of the Cornwall ore deposits who had mined the banks since 1740. Under this incorporation, ownership and the right to use the ore were distributed between Robert W. Coleman, Robert H. and Anne Coleman, Robert Coleman, George Dawson Coleman, and Edward B. and Clement B. Grubb. The owners of Robesonia Furnace did not enter into the agreement which formed the company, but were nonetheless entitled to enough ore from the ore banks to supply that furnace under the terms of a reservation contained in the deed of Peter Grubb, Jr. to Robert Coleman dated May 9, 1786. The Bethlehem Steel Company purchased most of the ore rights held by the Coleman and Grubb families by 1920. The Ore Bank represented the richest single deposit of iron ore in Pennsylvania and continued to produce for ore for Bethlehem Steel Company as late as the 1940s.

The records include letter books and telegrams, 1862-1924; articles of association and agreement, 1854-1864; agreements, deeds, leases, power of attorney and releases, 1859-1929; cash books, 1802-1921; construction ledger sheets, 1907-1912; day books, 1824-1921; iron books, 1828-1880; iron ore shipments, 1864-1919; journals, 1805-1924 ledgers, 1802-1922; an ore book, 1854-1864; powder reports, 1886-1911; and receipt, sales, settlement, shipment and time books, 1823-1935. A number of releases represent settlements negotiated with the widows or parents of workers killed or maimed while in the employ of the company and the accompanying reports often explain in detail how and why accidents occurred. The wills, deeds, and powers of attorney relate to owners, guardians, and heirs of the Cornwall mines and associated company assets. The accident reports covering the years 1911-1915 were filed with the Pennsylvania Department of Labor. A minute book, 1864-1911, contains reports, motions, and discussions concerning administrative matters, finances, and legal matters. The reports were submitted by the General Superintendent who reviewed the routine operations of the mines and provide details on accidents that injured or killed workers.,

Also included are eighteen rolls of 35mm microfilm produced in 1954 that contain blueprints, prints, tracings and drawings of open pit cross sections; buildings and structures such as the main office and miners' school buildings; mine maps; railroad maps for the Cornwall and Lebanon areas; survey calculation books (underground and surface); and such mining equipment as electrical shovels, magnetic separators, scrapters, and hoisters. The Records were placed on permanent deposit with the State Archives by Bethlehem Steel Corporation in 1981.

Manuscript Group 346: Cornwall Furnace and Hopewell Forge Account Books, 1752-1766 (35 volumes)

Account books documenting the operations of Cornwall Furnace and Cornwall Forge and Hopewell Forge near Pottstown . A large sandstone blast furnace was first erected by Peter Grubb at Cornwall about 1739 in order to supply Hopewell Forge with pig iron. By 1790 the operations at both locations gradually came under the control of Robert Coleman who obtained full ownership by 1803. Cornwall Furnace remained in operation until 1883 and was owned by the Coleman estate until 1932 when it was donated to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania . The account books are associated with the Grubb period of ownership. Hopewell Forge is represented by journals and ledgers covering the period from 1753-66 and Cornwall Furnace is represented by journals and ledgers for the years 1752-66. These account books were in the possession of the Maryland Hall of Records as a result of a court case, Amos Garrett vs. Jacob Giles, filed Dec. 2, 1771 with the Maryland Court of Chancery. A full transcript of this case appears in the Maryland Court of Appeals (Judgement Records) BW10, p. 45-346

Manuscript Group 393: Pullman-Standard Car Manufacturing Company of Butler, Pennsylvania Records, [ca. 1902-1982] (155 cu. ft.)

The Pullman-Standard Car Manufacturing Company was a manufacturing branch of Pullman Incorporated of Chicago , that resulted from the 1930 merger between the Pullman Car and Manufacturing Corporation and the Standard Steel Car Company. The Standard Steel Car Company had been incorporated in 1902 by former executives of the Pressed Steel Car Company. Standard Steel Car Company’s major production facilities were established in Butler , Pennsylvania . In 1912, Standard acquired the Middletown Car Company, which it held until 1930. In addition to the Butler and Middletown plants, production took place at a plant in Hammond , Indiana and, through the Middletown subsidiary, in Rio de Janeiro , Brazil . After the merger with Pullman , the Middletown and Rio holdings were divested. During World War Two, the Butler plant produced artillery and naval shells and aerial bombs. With the increase in air and highway travel after the war, use of railroads began to decline. Pullman-Standard was affected by the reduction in demand for their rail cars and in 1981 production ceased.

Records of the Butler branch of Pullman-Standard consist primarily of general arrangement volumes, tracings and mechanical drawings of railroad freight cars and components manufactured between 1902 and 1969. Other technical material consists of trade association manuals and standards. Also included are employee indexes from 1909 to 1937 and employee records from 1949 to 1982. Audio-visual materials, including photographs, motion picture films and audio tapes, are available. Unusual items include a volume of car drawings produced by the Rio de Janeiro plant; die drawings of all the components used in the manufacture of artillery and naval shells; and a volume from the Imperial Railways of North China which contains drawings of the parts of road beds, rolling stock and locomotives, as well as pages on the operation of the railroad, conduct of personnel, and precautions to be taken during the flood season.

 

Manuscript Group 401: Delaware and Hudson Railway Company Records, 1887-1959 (11.2 cu. ft.)

The Delaware and Hudson Railroad grew out of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company that was formed in 1825. By 1829, the Canal Company was utilizing locomotives to supplement canal travel, the most famous being the "Stourbridge Lion." By the late nineteenth century, the D & H operated rail lines throughout northeastern Pennsylvania and New York . Today it is part of Guilford Transportation Industries, Inc. of Massachusetts . The records comprise 4 cubic feet of assessments reports and printed histories and 7.2 cubic feet of photographs of locomotives and rolling stock. Also present is information on as explosions, train wrecks and a roundhouse turntable at Carbondale . It is divided into the following series: Locomotive Alternation Reports, [ca. 1915 - 1948]. (3 cartons) {#401m.1} ; Locomotive Classification Books, 1912 - 1918. (1 carton) {#401m.2}; Locomotive Inventories, 1915. (1 carton) {#401m.3} ; Miscellaneous Records, [ca. 1887-1959]. (1 carton) {#401m.4} ; Stourbridge Lion Records, [ca. 1932 - 1941]. (1 box) {#401m.5};  and Photographs, undated. (18 boxes) {#401m.6} .

Manuscript Group 404: Dick Thornburgh Papers, 1979-1987 (576 cu. ft.)

Richard (Dick) Thornburgh was born in Pittsburgh on July 16, 1932 , the son of Charles G. and Alice Sanborn Thornburgh. He attended Pittsburgh area schools, then Yale University where he earned a degree in engineering in 1954. Thornburgh completed a law degree with honors from the University of Pittsburgh in 1957 and became a member of the Pennsylvania Bar in 1958. He soon joined the law firm of Kirkpatrick and Lockhart.

While a practicing attorney, Thornburgh was active in Pittsburgh ’s civic affairs and made his first attempt at public office by unsuccessfully running for the U.S. House of Representatives in 1966. He served as a delegate to Pennsylvania ’s constitutional convention in 1967-1988 and advocated inclusion of local government home-rule provisions in the revised document. In 1969, the President Nixon appointed him as U.S. Attorney for the Western District of Pennsylvania where he earned a reputation as an anti-racketeering prosecutor and enforcer of the federal Organized Crime Control Act. Thornburgh held the U.S. Attorney’s post until 1975 when President Ford appointed him Assistant Attorney General for the Justice Department’s Criminal Division. He held the post until early 1977 when he returned to private law practice.

Thornburgh launched his campaign for the governor’s office in 1978 and put together a highly organized campaign, raised money, and identified several key campaign themes including ethical and clean government. Thornburgh also promised fiscal integrity, another important issue in a state that faced a sliding credit rating and an insolvency approximating $100 million. Thornburgh courted non-traditional supporters including organized labor, black and Jewish voters, and Democrats dissatisfied with their party. Despite Flaherty’s counter efforts and won the governorship by a 228,000- vote margin. Perhaps the most significant event to occur during Thornburgh’s tenure as governor was the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island . On March 28, 1979 equipment malfunctions and operator error resulted in a partial meltdown of the Unit 2 reactor core. Several days of uncertainty about the accident’s severity followed. With the guidance of the federal Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Thornburgh was able to assess and take control of the situation. He ordered a limited evacuation and proved effective at calming public fear throughout the region. Though the long-term consequences of the accident remain subject to debate, a complete reactor meltdown was averted. Thornburgh also oversaw the development of a comprehensive clean-up plan. There are extensive correspondence files in this manuscript group that document the unfolding crisis and the way it was handled by Governor Thornburgh’s administration.

Manuscript Group 416: Aero Service Corporation Photographs, [ca. 1926-1948] (over 4,000 items)

The Aero Service Corporation began in 1919 in Philadelphia as a pioneer and world leader in aerial photography and photogrammetry. Directed by Virgil I. Kauffman, a World War I veteran pilot who joined the company in 1924, the firm obtained lucrative government and private contracts including those with the United States Geological Survey and the Tennessee Valley Authority that involved some of the first aerial surveys of the country. Kauffman retained the original negatives of the firm until his death in 1985 and thereafter his survivors permitted the dispersion of the negatives to appropriate historical agencies throughout the country. In 1988 the Pennsylvania State Archives received those pertaining to Pennsylvania .  The photographs include approximately 2,200 glass plate and film negatives in varying sizes, usually 8 x 10", 7 1/2" or 9" or 9 x 9", roughly dated between 1926 and 1939. There are very few original prints present. All are oblique aerial views primarily of the Philadelphia area and Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey towns. They are arranged numerically and feature factories, businesses, individual homes, housing developments, golf courses, sports arenas, etc. These images may be useful in locating early power lines, power transmission plants, mining and manufacturing activities, municipal utilities, and transportation corridors.

Manuscript Group 425: EBASCO Environmental Company Aerial Photography, [ca. 1980-1985] (108 images)

The Ebasco Environmental Company of Sacramento , California , conducted an analysis of a utility pipeline project done by the Texas Eastern Corporation in the early 1980s. Part of this analysis included an aerial survey of counties along the southern border of Pennsylvania . Ebasco donated the images to the State Archives in 1990. The views are 108 enlarged (22 1/2 x 24") aerial images of Adams , Bedford , Chester , Fayette, Franklin , Fulton , Greene, Lancaster , Somerset and York Counties . The scale is 1 inch: 500 feet. The pipeline is delineated on each sheet with black tape. Captions giving mileposts are also affixed to the images. Arrangement is alphabetical by county.

Manuscript Group 426: Vulcan Locomotive Works Collection, [ca. 1920-1964] (65 cu. ft.)

The Vulcan Locomotive Works of South Wilkes-Barre was the third largest locomotive manufacturer in Pennsylvania. The company specialized in producing small narrow and standard gauge locomotives for industrial and mining use such as those manufactured for the Lehigh Coal Company. The firm also produced many outstanding standard types of locomotives for both American and foreign railroads. The Collection contains technical engineering rather than business records and consists of 12 file cabinets including 4 drawers each of printed engineering material and photographs. It also includes a 10 drawer map cabinet of tracings and blue line drawings; approximately 48 linear feet of shelving with folders containing complete specifications and tracings needed to build a locomotive for a specific customer, several file card boxes, and a motorized rolodex having specification cards for each locomotive. There also are two pallet loads of locomotive parts to be used for exhibits. The Collection is housed at the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania,

P. O. Box 15
,
300 Gap Road
, Route 741 East, Strasburg , PA 17579 . To view the Collection, contact either the site administrator or the curator at the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania at (717) 687-8626,

Manuscript Group 427: Baldwin-Hamilton Company Records, [ca. 1834-1962]

The Baldwin Locomotive Works of Philadelphia founded in 1832  built more steam locomotives than any other institution in the world by the time construction was phased out in the early 1950s. Late in the 1890s, in conjunction with Westinghouse Electrical Manufacturing Company, Baldwin built small electric locomotives for mining and industrial use. By the mid-1920s, the company started experimenting with "oil" and diesel engines, and by 1939 was producing combination diesel electric locomotives. In the early 1950s Baldwin merged with the Lima-Hamilton Company and the Austin-Western Dump Car Company under the name Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton Company that continued in operation until 1972. The collection consists primarily of the engineering drawings for the locomotives produced, as well as various related indexes, registers, order books and specification books. The indexing system is incomplete and complicated and some gaps exist in the collection. The drawings are only semi-processed at this time and are challenging to search.

Manuscript Group 435: American Peace Test Records, 1986-1990 (12 cu. ft.)

These records were donated by Sedgwick [Nancy] Heskett, one of the founders of the American Peace Test. This organization was founded in January 1986 with headquarters in Las Vegas , Nevada and used nonviolent, direct action and citizens' resistance to bring about an end to nuclear warhead testing. Ms. Heskett was one of three national co-coordinators and a staff person for the eastern U.S. field office headquarters for the organization. The records are unprocessed and include administrative records, pamphlets, fliers, and correspondence. While these materials appear to relate primarily to ending nuclear weapons testing, they may also prove of interest in understanding the larger anti-nuclear power movement in the United States .

Manuscript Group 440: General Public Utilities Corporation and Duquesne Light Company Transmission Line Project Records, 1991-1994 (2 cu. ft.)

On September 11, 1991 four electric utility companies - Duquesne Light Company, Metropolitan Edison Company, Pennsylvania Electric Company, and Jersey Central Power and Light Company submitted a joint application to the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission for the construction of a 268 mile, 500 kilovolt electric transmission line. The proposed transmission line would extend from outside Pittsburgh to Three Mile Island in Londonderry Township . The line would have initially been used to transfer electricity from the Duquesne Light system to General Public Utilities customers in central and eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey .  This project became one of the most controversial power-line projects in Pennsylvania history. The proposal was met with opposition as nearly 10,000 letters of protest were sent to the Public Utility Commission. The opponents raised three primary objections: potential health problems, lower property values, and environmental concerns. Hearings were conducted before the Pennsylvania Utility Commission for review. These examined the case for the need for the proposed high voltage transmission line, a description of the routes to be taken, the estimated cost, the date and time of completion, the environmental impact studies, and the names and addresses of property owners whose land would be used. The project was terminated on December 10, 1993 after General Public Utilities Commission filed a "Petition for Leave to Withdraw from Proceedings of Metropolitan Edison Company, Pennsylvania Electric Company, and Jersey Central Power and Light Company."

The records include Hearings and Testimonies, Maps (36"x24" aerial views illustrating the proposed corridor which would be used in the construction of the power line), and video tapes entitled "Building for the Future", 1991 and "Pennsylvania Energy for Economic Revitalization." The records were obtained from the General Public Utilities Service Corporation. Related Records will be found in Manuscript Group 441 - Larew's Farm Market Records on the General Public Utilities and Duquesne Light Company Transmission Line Project and Manuscript Group 442 - York County Citizens Action Group Records on the General Public Utilities and Duquesne Light Company Transmission Line Project .

Manuscript Group 441: Larew's Farm Market Records on the General Public Utilities Corporation and Duquesne Light Company Transmission Line Project, 1991-1994 (7 cu. ft.)

On September 11, 1991 four electric companies, Duquesne Light Company, Metropolitan Edison Company, Pennsylvania Electric Company, and Jersey Central Power and Light Company submitted a joint application to the Pennsylvania Commission for the construction of a 268 mile, 500 kilovolt electric transmission line. The proposed line would have extended from outside Pittsburgh to Three Mile Island in Londonderry Township . The application was received with much opposition.

Lloyd Larew, of
Dillsburg , Pennsylvania , was one of the thousands of citizens who filed a complaint before the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission in the fall of 1991 against the proposed route of the transmission line. He claimed that his property had been the subject of investigation for subdivision and residential development and was listed for sale with a realty agency. The proposed transmission line, which would cut through his property, he said, would render the property unusable for development. He proposed that the application for the transmission line be denied along the proposed right-of-way and that action be taken to remove his and adjoining property from the proposed route. On December 10, 1993, General Public Utilities Company pulled out of the project, terminating it.

These records obtained from Lloyd Larew include Legal Proceedings pertaining to the hearings of the General Public Utilities - Duquesne Light Company transmission project, Hearing Testimony and Reports, Correspondence, Newspaper Clippings, and Pamphlets. Related Records will be found in General Public Utilities Corporation and Duquesne Light Company Transmission Line Project Records (Manuscript Group 440) and York County Citizens Action Group Records on the General Public Utilities and Duquesne Light Company Transmission Line Project (Manuscript Group 442).

Manuscript Group 442: York County Citizens Action Group Records on the General Public Utilities Corporation and Duquesne Light Company Transmission Line Project, 1991-1994 (2 cu. ft.)

On September 11, 1991 , four electric utility companies, Duquesne Light Company, Metropolitan Edison Company, Pennsylvania Electric Company, and Jersey Central Power and Light Company submitted a joint application to the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission for the construction of a proposed 268 mile, 500 kilovolt transmission line. The proposed line would have extended from outside Pittsburgh to Three Mile Island in Londonderry Township . The application received much protest and opposition from citizens. The York County Citizens' Action Group opposed the construction of the line. In July 1991, presentations were conducted by the General Public Utilities and Duquesne Light Company indicating their plans to construct a transmission line. The York County Citizens' Action Group held its first public meeting with an attendance of 400-500 citizens on August 19, 1991 . The group was unanimous in its opposition to a line anywhere in Pennsylvania . Direct action was taken when Attorney Susan Shanaman was retained. The group became active in voicing its concerns. The opponents raised three primary concerns: potential health problems, lower property values, and environmental damage. They distributed informational pamphlets and flyers about the project, held fundraisers and rallys, and attended the Public Utility Commission meetings and hearings. The group also provided the citizens with information on measures they could take to oppose the line, such as filing complaints and attending informative meetings to discuss the issues.

The group was successful in its efforts. On
December 10, 1993 , Duquesne Light Company pulled out and filed a "Petition for Leave to Withdraw from Proceedings of Metropolitan Edison Company, Pennsylvania Electric Company, and Jersey Central Power and Light Company." The project was terminated. The records which were obtained from the York County Citizens Action Group include Correspondence, Legal Proceedings materials pertaining to the hearings of the General Public Utilities and Duquesne Light Company transmission, literature relating to the project, Meeting Agendas, Newsletters, Newspaper Clippings, Pamphlets and Flyers and Video Tape. Among the video tapes are the Citizens Action Group Public Meeting, November 11, 1991 ; the Network Earth CNN, June 28, 1992 ; the Public Utility Commission Public Hearings, October 6, 1992 ; and four tapes
Public Evidentiary Hearings,
October 19, 1992 , three tapes

Related Records: General Public Utilities Corporation and Duquesne Light Company Transmission Project Records (Manuscript Group 440) and Larew's Farm Market Records on the General Public Utilities and Duquesne Light Company Transmission Line Project (Manuscript Group 441).

Manuscript Group 455: Explorers Club of Pennsylvania Records, 1879-1988 (4 cu. ft.)

In July 1869 a group of gentlemen conceived the idea of spending a few days in the mountains to enjoy the atmosphere, cool water, and scenery. They decided the location for the first camping excursion would be in Horse Valley , located in Upper Strasburg , Pennsylvania . After this first camping experience there was a lapse of time until the second camping excursion in August 1872. During this second encampment, the gentlemen decided to form a permanent organization. Officers were elected, the name "The Explorers" was adopted, a decision was made to purchase tents for the next annual camp, and dues were assessed at $3.50 per member. There were no printed rules governing the behavior of the men, but it was decided that there would be no card games or intoxicating liquor brought to camp. The Explorers did not have a permanent site, but camped annually at various locations. However, in 1913, Charles C. Schriver, Secretary of the Explorers, filed the first application for a leasehold. In 1916 Pine Grove Furnace became the permanent quarters for the Explorers, active membership was limited to twenty-eight and members styled themselves as "Colonels." Annual encampments were dedicated to male fellowship that included engaging in such activities as "goofy golf." Cabins were eventually added to the Pine Grove site.

The records of the Explorers Club of Pennsylvania include club minutes and bulletins, camp narratives, logbooks and one camp guest book, correspondence, the charter of incorporation, by-laws, account and financial records, photograph and scrap albums, slides, and newspaper clippings. Information concerning the administration and events of camps is essentially complete from 1872-1988. Information from 1950 onward is best represented, as material referring to earlier camps and activities and does not always contain the same kind of a consistent depth and breadth, although there are portions of handwritten narratives that discuss earlier encampments. Much of the information comes by way of bulletins and minutes sent to the membership that recite camp activities, decisions made by the membership, and other club business. Other important administrative records are the charter of incorporation and copies of the original and updated by-laws. Correspondence is most complete from 1964 to 1981. While letters generally occur between individual club members, the correspondence files also include Michaux Forest Association newsletters and Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources notices. The financial records of the club are intermittent, covering inclusively the accounts pertaining to the years 1914-1954, and 1977-1983. Insurance and lease records exist for a period from 1960-1974. Account records and information sometimes appears in bulletins, minutes, and committee reports, as well as occasionally in the general correspondence. The Explorers kept a good collection of photographs and slides of their encampments, which offers an interesting and often entertaining glimpse of what an Explorers camp was like. Of particular interest are the photograph albums of early encampments beginning around 1904 and the collection of slides covering the years 1958-1977. Membership albums contain photographs of each member. Numerous scrapbooks contain news clippings and information pertaining to a variety of activities, camp related and not, from 1884-mid-1940's.

The records are arranged in subgroups. Administrative and financial records make up two subgroups, and photographic records constitute a third. Within these subgroups, records are arranged in series based on the type of file or subject. The file organization of the Explorers Club has been maintained as accurately as possible. Within the series, records are arranged chronologically. As a result of time and wear, some nitrate photographic negatives were destroyed. However, these negatives all had corresponding photographs, so no images were lost permanently.

Manuscript Group 456: Pennsylvania Academy of Science Records, 1964-1984 (20 cu. ft.)

The Pennsylvania Academy of Science was organized on April 18, 1924 in Harrisburg , Pennsylvania in an effort to unite Pennsylvania scientists in an organization which could effectively advance science and the scientific spirit. The Academy is affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the National Association of Academies of Science. The Academy was finally incorporated through the Court of Common Pleas of Northampton County on November 16, 1964 , and the initial registered office of the corporation was Lafayette College , Easton , Pennsylvania . The corporation was formed for the following purposes: To encourage scientific research; to promote interest in the teaching of science; to stimulate exchange of ideas among those engaged in scientific work, especially in Pennsylvania; to assist in the development and distribution of information about the material, educational, and other resources and riches of the Commonwealth, and to arrange and prepare for publication of such reports as may further these objectives. Publications of the Academy include Proceedings , now called the Journal , which consists of articles of general scientific interest, many dealing with aspects of Pennsylvania science. In the early 1930s, the American Association for the Advancement of Science appointed a national executive to coordinate the various Junior Academies of Science in the United States . In March 1934, the Pennsylvania Junior Academy of Science was organized and is now a state-wide organization divided into ten regions, each consisting of two or more counties.

The records of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science consist of journals, proceedings, annual reports, newsletters, financial statements, receipts, invoices, audit reports, three photograph albums, loose photographs, a video, minutes, correspondence, and membership data, 1964-1984. Also included are annual meeting proceedings, information booklets, and financial statements of the Pennsylvania Junior Academy of Science.

Manuscript Group 457: Buffalo and Susquehanna Railroad Corporation Records, 1882-1930 (126 cu. ft.)

During the latter half on the nineteenth century Frank Henry Goodyear of Groton , New York built a corporate empire consisting of sawmills, coal mines, and a railroad linking the Great Lakes with the forests and mines of Pennsylvania . In 1872 Goodyear moved to Buffalo , New York to start a coal and lumber business building his first mills around the Port Allegheny area. Due to the expansion of his business, Goodyear began logging in the Freeman Run area of north central Pennsylvania . Since the existing Buffalo , New York , and Philadelphia Railroad was located too far away to service his logging operations, Goodyear decided to charter his own line, the Sinnemahoning Valley Railroad, on May 9, 1885 . The Buffalo and Susquehanna Railroad Company was formed in 1893 as a result of the merger of the Sinnemahoning Valley Railroad, the Susquehanna Railroad, the Cherry Springs Railroad, the Cross Fork Railroad, and the Buffalo and Susquehanna Railroads. The Buffalo and Susquehanna Railroad extended sixty-two miles from Keating Summit to Galeton and was served by a Baldwin 2-8-0 locomotive. Upon reorganization, Frank Goodyear stepped down as president of the railroad and assumed the positions of first vice president and chairman of the board. Goodyear's brother, Charles, became second vice president and general manager of the railroad, while Marlin Olmstead became president.

During the years 1900-1907, the railroad doubled in size as it shifted from hauling lumber to hauling coal and coke. In 1901, the
Buffalo and Susquehanna Coal and Coke Company organized to mine coal and coke in Pennsylvania . In order to get the coal and coke north to Buffalo , the Buffalo and Susquehanna Railway Company was incorporated in 1902. In July 1907, the new Buffalo and Susquehanna Railway Company leased the Buffalo and Susquehanna Railroad line for 999 years. Although, coal was the foundation of the railroad, the Buffalo and Susquehanna Railway also began to carry a considerable volume of passenger traffic by advertising its

Grand Scenic Route
as a popular Sunday excursion.  The Railway experienced difficulties in the early 1900s when a major customer, the Buffalo and Susquehanna Iron Company, was taken over by the Rogers-Brown Iron Company. The railroad also overextended itself financially, running up substantial debts. When the Buffalo and Susquehanna Railway defaulted on the interest due on its debts in 1910, both the Railway and the Railroad went into receivership. The Buffalo and Susquehanna Railroad was the only property worth salvaging of the two. Reorganized in 1914, the Buffalo and Susquehanna Railroad Corporation continued to operate as a coal carrier until the coal mines it served closed in 1925. In 1932, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad acquired the Buffalo and Susquehanna and continued to operate passenger service over the line until 1949. The Buffalo and Susquehanna Railroad Corporation records are held at two Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission facilities: The State Archives and the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania. Records held in the State Archives at Harrisburg are primarily concerned with business operations, land transactions, contracts, stock certificates and ticket sales.

Manuscript Group 462: Engineer's Society of Pennsylvania Records, 1900-1965 (3 cu. ft.)

The Engineering Club of Central Pennsylvania was organized in March 1904 and incorporated in February 1906. The Club changed its name to the Engineers' Society of Pennsylvania in 1909. In 1927, the Society was disbanded but was reorganized in February 1931. The purpose of the Engineers' Society was the advancement of engineering, the professional improvement of its members, and the encouragement of social interaction among men of practical science. The records include journals, meeting minutes, and other records of the Engineering Club and Engineers' Society of Pennsylvania.

Manuscript Group 463: Susquehanna Coal Company Records, 1901-1915 (20 cu. ft.)

The Susquehanna Coal Company was incorporated in April 1867 as the Pittston Railroad and Coal Compan and its name was changed to the Susquehanna Coal Company in February 1869. The company controlled 5,823 acres of coal lands on both sides of the Susquehanna River at Nanticoke Dam. Much of its stock was owned by the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Pennsylvania Canal Company.  In 1913, the Pennsylvania Railroad disposed of its holdings in various anthracite coal companies, including the Susquehanna Coal Company. In 1917, the Susquehanna Coal Company, whose capital stock was still owned by the Pennsylvania Railroad, disposed of its mining properties to the Susquehanna Collieries Company, and discontinued mining and selling coal. These records consist primarily of the payroll ledgers of the Susquehanna Coal Company.

 

Manuscript Group 471: Harold and Lucinda Denton Papers, 1979-1999 (7 cu. ft.)

A graduate of North Carolina State College and a former Dupont Corporation engineer, Harold R. Denton was Director of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission during the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Denton served as the chief of operations at the site during and after the crisis, keeping the public informed about what had happened and what measures were being taken to correct the situation. The General Correspondence, 1979-1984 (2 boxes) {series #471.1} received by Harold and Lucinda Denton consists primarily of letters and cards from the general public expressing their views on the accident and Denton's handling of it, invitations and acknowledgements for speaking engagements, and letters from strangers and acquaintances concerning travel and leisure activities during the Dentons' stay in central Pennsylvania. Many of the letters express gratitude for Denton's handling of the crisis, though some correspondents sought answers to questions or criticized the public health hazards posed by nuclear power plants. The Official Correspondence, 1978-1981 (1 folder) {series #471.2} sent or received by Harold Denton concern the accident and its aftermath. Correspondents include D. F. Bunch, Chief of the Program Support Branch of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Ben Rush, Executive Director of the Energy Research Institute; Richard Pontz of the Fund-Raising Counsel for Philanthropic Institutions; Fred Young of The Hearst Corporation; F. Marshall Rock, Jr., Director of the Pennsylvania House Select Committee; Raymond Reedy, Mayor of Lititz; and Peter H. Kostmayer of the United States House of Representatives. Also present are two White House press releases dated September 9, 1980 designating Harold Denton a "Distinguished Execitive" for outstanding performance in handling the Three Mile Island accident. Finally, there are several copies to Harold Denton of correspondence passing between others.

The Reports, 1979 – 1981 (5 volumes and 1 folder) {series #471.3} were  issued by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy and include "Three Mile Island Telephone Survey: Preliminary Report on Procedures and Findings," by Dr. Cynthia Bullock Flynn of the University of Kansas and Social Impact, Inc. for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as part of Post Licensing Studies of the Impacts of Nuclear Power Stations, September 5, 1979; Crisis Contained, The Department of Energy at Three Mile Island, A History , prepared by Philip L. Cantelon and Robert C. Williams for the U. S. Department of Energy, December, 1980; Three Mile Island, A Report to the Commissioners and to the Public by Mitchell Rogovin and George T. Frampton, Jr., Director and Deputy Director respectively of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Special Inquiry Group, Vol. 1, 1980; Executive Summary of the Working Conference on Advanced Electrotechnology Applications to Nuclear Power Plants sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers that was held in Washington, D.C., January 15-17, 1980; U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1979 Annual Report ; and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1981 Annual Report . The Commencement Addresses and Related Materials, 1979 (2 folders) {series #471.4} are transcripts of speeches, letters of invitation and acceptance, commencement programs, and related materials. These include commencement materials and transcript of the
May 20, 1979 commencement address entitled "Energy, Anergy, and Ethics" that Dr. Denton delivered at Lebanon Valley College ; commencement program and correspondence arranging for Dr. Denton to deliver the commencement address at Gettysburg College on June 3, 1979; and commencement programs and letters of invitation and acceptance arranging for Dr. Denton to deliver the commencement address at the Pennsylvania State University Capitol Campus on June 7, 1979 .

The Newspaper and magazine articles and newsletters, 1979-1999 (3 folders) {series # 471.5} consist of copies of newspaper and magazine articles concerning the accident at Three Mile Island and newsletters issued by various advocacy organizations. These include a copy of an article by Cyril L. Colmar entitled "Risk: A Pragmatic De Minimis Approach" that appeared in the January 26, 1979 issue of Science , official journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; a copy of an article entitled Chronology of Events at Three Mile Island" in the April 4, 1979 issue of THE NEWS, Mexico City ; a copy of an article entitled "Lawsuits Begin: A Burden of Proof" in April 8, 1979 issue of the Philadelphia Inquirer ; a copy of the April 16, 1979 issue of the Harrisburg Patriot News with lead article entitled "The Agony of the Atom" by Staff Writer Pat Carroll; a copy of a May 1, 1979 newsletter entitled Access to Energy, A Pro-Science, Pro-Technology, Pro-Free Enterprise Monthly Newsletter published in Boulder, Colorado; a photocopy of an article by Mike Gray entitled "What Really Happened at Three Mile Island" that appeared in the May 17, 1979 issue of Rolling Stone ;  a copy of newspaper entitled Energy News Digest of Nuclear Hazards versus Alternative Energies dated February 28, 1980 published by the Energy Awareness Center of Woodstock, New York; a copy of a newspaper dated July, 1980 entitled TMI Today that was published by the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station;  a copy of the December 6, 1983 newsletter entitled The Energy Daily published in Washington, D. C.; a Media Update: A Summary of the Important Newspaper Articles Regarding Three Mile Island for the week of April 6, 1989;  a copy of article entitled "TMI Ten Years Later, Still a Center of Nuclear Debate" in the March 20, 1989 issue of USA Today ; a copy of an article entitled "TMI: It Touched the Way We Lived" in March 24, 1989 issue of Lancaster Intelligencer Journal ; and "Three Mile Island: 10 Years After," Centre Daily Times , March 26, 1989. The Energy Policy Forum Papers, 1981 (1 folder) {series #471.6} are two copies of an Energy Policy Forum paper entitled "Nuclear Power: Epilogue or Prologue?"
Denton delivered at the Conference on Nuclear Energy and the Media on June 28, 1981 . Miscellaneous, [c. 1978-1979] (2 folders) {series #471.7} materials are mostly undated items such as brochures for historic and tourist sites, restaurants, and special events in the area near Three Mile Island . The second folder contains random and mostly undated papers and scraps of paper, some of which contain calculations regarding iodine levels and apparent release rates.

The Magazines, 1979-1999 (1 box) {series #471.8} include three issues of People Magazine , two of which are dated April 23, 1979 and one dated March 24, 1980, featuring articles on Harold Denton; a copy of the February 1980 issue of Susquehanna Magazine containing a biographical sketch on Harold Denton; Life Magazine , May 1979 containing an article entitled "Crisis in the World of Nuclear Power: After Three Mile Island, Big Questions About Safety and the Future."; The New Yorker , October 19, 1981 containing an article entitled "A Reporter at Large, Nuclear Waste" by Fred C. Shapiro; Newsweek , June 27, 1983 containing article entitled "The Lessons Learned at Three Mile Island" by Eileen Keerdoja, Sylvester Monroe and Mary Lord; Atari Connection , Fall 1983 containing an article entitled "Nuclear Troubleshooter Stays Sharp with Scram: Video Game Imitates Life" by Paul Cohen; Nuclear News, A Publication of the American Nuclear Society , March 1985 containing an article entitled "The Nuclear Construction Predicament - Part 1: A Regulator Responds to an Interview with the NRC's Harold Denton" by John Graham; three copies of George Magazine , March 1999 containing an article entitled "Nightmare at Three Mile Island" by Harold Denton; and U.S. News and World Report , March 29, 1999 containing an article entitled "When the World Stopped, Twenty Years After the Three Mile Island Accident the Debate Still Rages. The Newsprint Scrapbooks, March 29, 1979 - March, 1980 (1 carton) {series #471.9} were compiled by Harold and Lucinda Denton containing newspaper and magazine articles related to the Three Mile Island accident. The Mounted News Clippings, [1979 & undated] (1 folder) {series #471.10} concerning the Three Mile Island accident were taken include The State of Columbia, South Carolina, Harrisburg Evening News , Lancaster New Era , Lititz Record Express , Harrisburg Sunday Patriot News , Rocky Mountain, North Carolina Telegram , The Detroit News , The Miami Herald , The Plain Dealer , The Kansas City Times , Washington Post and Washington Star . The Photocopies of News Clippings, [undated] (1 folder) {series #471.11} concerning the
Three Mile Island accident. Most of the articles are dated April and May, 1979 and are from newspapers all over the United States .

The TMI Memorabilia, [undated] (1 folder) {series #471.12} include bumper stickers and miscellaneous advertising for purchasing bumper stickers, Three Mile Island Creamy Mushroom Dressing, collector's edition TMI lamps, and tours of the TMI countryside. Also present is an invitation to the
Denton family to attend an evening treasure hunt at Hershey Park on May 9, 1980 . The Photograph and ID Cards, 1979 (1 folder) {series #471.13} consist of a publicity photograph of Harold Denton, his Atomic Energy Commission identification badge, and the Emergency Movement Instruction card issued to him when he was first dispatched to the accident site. The Video and Audio Tapes, 1999 (1 box) {series #471.14} include Pennsylvania Cable News Network interviews of the 20th Anniversary Press Conference of Harold Denton held on March 25, 1999 and of related PCN broadcasts entitled "Remembering Three Mile Island," "Three Mile Island and Media Relations" and "Three Mile Island Call-in Program." Also present is a video tape for a WITF program on Three Mile Island and original audio tapes of Historian Ken Wolensky's interviews with Harold Denton and retired General Public Utilities President Robert Long that were conducted on March 25 and March 26, 1999 respectively. Transcripts are present for the latter two interviews.

Manuscript Group 472: Walter Lyon Papers, 1902-2007 (bulk 1955-1995) (58 cu. ft.)

Walter Lyon was an environmental engineer who held a variety of management positions in local, state and federal government during the second half of the twentieth century, and specialized in environmental and health issues. Born in Cologne , Germany on June 26, 1924 , he eventually immigrated to the United States , serving in the U.S. Army during World War II. After the war, he received a Bachelor's Degree in Civil Engineering, as well as a Master's Degree in Sanitary Engineering, from The Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore , Maryland . He also studied political science and public administration at American University in Washington , D.C. from 1950-1953. Lyon started his career in sanitary engineering at the U.S. Public Health Service in Washington , D.C. , serving as Assistant Chief of the Planning and Development Branch, Division of Engineering Resources, from 1950-1954. After a three-year stint as Assistant Chief of the Environmental Health Section, Philadelphia Department of Public Health, he moved into a number of Pennsylvania Civil Service positions.

Beginning his career with the Commonwealth as the Assistant Director of the Division (later Bureau) of Sanitary Engineering in the Department of Health in 1957, Lyon was quickly promoted to Director of the Division in 1958, a post at which he served until 1970. In 1971, he accepted the position of Director of the Bureau of Water Quality Management, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources. During the twenty-two years Lyon was in charge of the Bureau, he led the Commonwealth's water pollution and drinking water programs, instituting many program innovations such as the State's groundwater and biology programs. The final position Lyon held with the Commonwealth was Deputy Secretary for Planning, Department of Environmental Resources, from 1979-1983. In addition to heading the water pollution and drinking water programs during his tenure with the Commonwealth, Lyon was responsible for the Commonwealth's Environmental Master Plan, which gives direction to many diverse resources and programs of Pennsylvania 's government, the State's Recreation Plan, federal environmental and resources legislation and policy analysis.

Manuscript Group 497: Jeddo-Highland Coal Company Records, 1870-1968 (56 cu. ft.)

These records are held at the Anthracite Heritage Museum in Scranton . To arrange an appointment to consult the records call the Site Administrator at 570-963-4804.

The records include checks, receipts, rates, correspondence, leases royalty statements, wage and time sheets, tax returns, and other business materials relating to the operations of the Jeddo-Highland Coal Company of West Pittston and Wilkes-Barre , Pennsylvania . The Jeddo-Highland No. 5 breaker located on the road between Freeland and Eckley was built in 1915, closed in 1963, and destroyed in 1986. A huge powerplant with a towering smokestack built in 1933 provided electricity for mines for miles around. This breaker was featured in a black and white short about coal mining made in the early 1930s. Jeddo-Highland No. 7 breaker was built around 1926, deactivated in the mid-1990's, and demolished around 1997. A small boiler house next to the breaker was razed in the late 1970s. The Jeddo-Highland Coal Company operated the "#7 Breaker" in Hazelton for years after many similar facilities had been abandoned. Representative predecessor and subsidiary companies include G.B. Markle & Company, John Marlel Company, Jeddo Tunnel Company, Hazel Brook Coal Company, Fuel Service Company, Jennings, Inc., and Raven Run Coal Company. Also present are records relating to the Union Improvement Company, the Jeddo Supply Company, Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc., Harleigh-Brookwood Coal Company, and Lehigh Coal Company. The Jeddo-Highland Coal Company was incorporated on April 9, 1908 , became the Markle Investment Company in 1964, and dissolved soon afterwards. For related materials, see the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records (Manuscript Group 311).

Manuscript Group 498: Penn Anthracite Collieries Company Records, 1876-1996 (521.3 cu. ft.)

The records are housed at the Pennsylvania Anthracite Heritage Museum in Scranton . To arrange an appointment to consult the records and any finding aids held at the site call the Site Administrator at 570-963-4804.

The corporate records do not include the company's minute books, real estate files, architectural drawings, public relations or marketing files though some of these types of these records are in the custody of the Lackawanna Historical Society and the Lackawanna Heritage Valley Authority.

Manuscript Group 500: Roberts Family Business Records, 1856-1938 (115 cu. ft.)

These records are held at Drake Well Museum, 202 Museum Lane, Titusville , PA 16354. To make an appointment to consult the records contact the museum curator at (814) 827-2797.

The Roberts Family Business Collection consists of the records of W.B. Roberts and Son, Roberts and Sterrit, and the Roberts Torpedo Dompany

. Col. E. A. L. Roberts patented the use of the torpedo, black powder and the "super incombant water tamp" in 1864. Together, these innovations provided a highly valuable oil producing technique that was soon used in wells throughout Pennsylvania . The patents included three components: the use of a tin tube (torpedo), propellant (black powder initially and then nitroglycerine), and water in the oil well (superincombant water tamp). The water cushioned the torpedo as it was lowered into the oil well and provided weight to hold the explosive force down in the well so the oil bearing sandstone would be cracked. Men hired by Roberts dropped a pointed weight down the well to detonate the torpedo. This was called “shooting a well” and the men were called “shooters.” This collection contains the records of the nitroglycerine plants in Titusville and Bradford, PA and Bolivar, NY, as well as the records of the employees who shot the oil wells, patents and related litigation documents, account records, annual reports of the Roberts Petroleum Torpedo Company, records of torpedos shot, correspondence and ledgers. Also present are business materials relating to the American Gas Improvement Company, Titusville Gas and Water Company, Hotel Brunswick, Roberts and Company Bankers, Mechanics Building and Loan Association, Dow, Fullagar and Coleman, Canadohta Club, Rochester and Tidioute Oil Company and the Rice, Robinson and Foggins Refinery of Titusville.

Manuscript Group 502: Ace Coal Company Records, 1937-1971 (48 cu. ft.)

The Ace Coal Company Records are housed at the Anthracite Heritage Museum in Scranton , Pennsylvania . To arrange an appointment to consult the records call the Site Administrator at 570-963-4804.

The Ace Coal Company was founded in 1937 in Blakely, Lackawanna County and the company was reorganized in 1979 under the same name. The records consist primarily of bound and loose accounts of sales and costs associated with the mining of anthracite coal. In addition to data on wages and royalties paid for coal leases, the records document how coal companies were regulated, their economic impact on supporting service industries, and the costs associated with day to day operations at a coal breaker. Several volumes document the distribution of the company's stock and resources from its incorporation on December 21, 1937 through the decline of the hard coal industry during the 1960s. Records are also present of other coal operators, such as M.S.B. Coal Company (1939-1949), [Salvator] Mascelli Coal Company (1942-1950), F & W Coal Company (1942-1951), and F & G Coal Company (1951-1953).

Manuscript Group 508: Shippingport Atomic Power Station Collection, 1955-2008 (1 box)

In 1957 Shippingport, Pennsylvania became home to America's first commercial nuclear power plant under President Dwight D. Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" program. Just two decades later, under the administration of President Jimmy Carter the U.S. Department of Energy converted the Shippingport plant into a Light Water Breeder Reactor that successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using thorium and uranium-233 fuel to "breed" more fuel than it consumed in generating electricity. By 1989, after more than twenty-five years of operation, the Shippingport facility also became the first commercial nuclear power plant in the nation to be successfully decommissioned and the land released for unrestricted public use. The construction of the plant represented a successful collaboration between Navy Admiral Hyman C. Rickover who headed the Naval Reactors Branch of the Atomic Energy Commission, Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh, Westinghouse Electric Company of Pittsburgh, and the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory of West Mifflin.

This collection consists of a number of discrete items that have long resided in various offices in the State Museum and the State Archives but were never previously accessioned. These early items have been supplemented by copies of publications used as sources to write an article for Pennsylvania Heritage Magazine on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Shippingport plant. Other materials relating to Shippingport will be found among the Leonard Bachman Papers (Manuscript 501) and in the papers of the various governors who served from 1954 to 1989. This collection consists of two series, one containing Contemporary Publications and Photographs, 1955-1980 (4 folders) and one containing Research Materials, 1990- 2008. (7 folders).

PA State Archives - Research Guides - Energy Related Records

If you need further assistance, you may contact an archivist at ra-statearchives@pa.gov