New Deal Archaeology References

Allen, Rebecca

 1991     Historical Archaeology in Pennsylvania During the Depression. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 61 (2): 18-30.

Augustine, Edgar

1938a   Recent Discoveries in Somerset County.  Pennsylvania Archaeologist 8 (1):6-12.

1938b   Indian Fortifications in Somerset County.  Pennsylvania Archaeologist 8 (2):41-45.

1938c   Somerset County Excavations: The Powell Sites.  Pennsylvania Archaeologist 8 (3):60-63, 71.

1938d   Important Research on Peck and Martz Rock Shelter Site in Somerset County.  Pennsylvania Archaeologist 8 (4):83-88.

1940     Fort Hill.  Pennsylvania Archaeologist 10 (3):51-58.

Butler, Mary

1936     Recent Archaeological Work in Southwestern Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Archaeologist 6 (3):55-58.

1939     Three Archaeological Sites in Somerset County, Pennsylvania.  Pennsylvania Historical Commission Bulletin 753.  Pennsylvania Historical Commission, Harrisburg.

Cadzow, Donald

1935a   The Pennsylvania Historical Commission's Work in Somerset County.  The Pennsylvania Archaeologist 4 (4):10-12.

1935b   Recent Archaeological Work in Somerset County.  The Pennsylvania Archaeologist 5 (2):35-36.

1936a   Archaeology and the Works Progress Administration in Pennsylvania.  The Pennsylvania Archaeologist 5 (4):99.

1936b   Progress of Research in Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Archaeologist 6(2): 31-33.

Chassé, Kristen

2007     Monongahela Mortuary Practices at the Reckner Site. Journal of Middle Atlantic Archaeology 23:117-122.

Cresson, Francis M., Jr.

1942     Village Sites in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 12 (1):16-20.

George, Richard

1983     The Gnagey Site and the Monongahela Occupation of the Somerset Plateau. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 53 (4): 1-97.

Hart, John P.

1993    Monongahela Subsistence-Settlement Change: The Late Prehistoric Period in the Lower Upper Ohio Valley. Journal of World Prehistory 7:71-120.

Mayer-Oakes, William

1955    Prehistory of the Upper Ohio Valley; An Introductory Archeological Study (Anthropological Series, No. 2). Annals of Carnegie Museum 34. Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh.

Means, Bernard K.

1998    Archaeological Past and Present: Field Methodology from 1930s Relief Excavations in Somerset County, Pennsylvania and its Relevance to Modern Archaeological Interpretations.  Journal of Middle Atlantic Archaeology 14:39-63. Available on line at:

1999    Monongahela Mortuary Practices in Somerset County, Pennsylvania: Observations and Implications.  Pennsylvania Archaeologist 69 (2):15-44.

2000a  An Archaeology of Archaeology: Recent Investigations into the 1938 Martz Rock Shelters Excavations.  Pennsylvania Archaeologist 70 (1):45-80.

2000b  Archaeology in Black and White: Digging Somerset County’s Past During the Great Depression.  Pennsylvania Heritage 26 (3):6-11. Available on line at:

2000c   Toward a Model of Monongahela Village Community Organization: Analyzing Pit Feature Data Recovered from the 1934 to 1940 Somerset County Relief Excavations.  North American Archaeologist 21 (1):35-61.

2000d   Mapping a New Future for the Past: Further Insights into Depression-era Archaeological Excavations in Southwestern Pennsylvania.  Journal of Middle Atlantic Archaeology 16:155-166.

2001     Circular Reasoning: Ring-shaped Village Settlements in Late Prehistoric Southwestern Pennsylvania and Beyond.  Journal of Middle Atlantic Archaeology 17:109-131.

2002a   “....To Reconstruct These Houses of Men Who Lived in a Stone Age:” Modeling Village Community Organization Using Data from the Somerset County Relief Excavations.    In Northeast Subsistence-Settlement Change: A.D. 700 - A.D. 1300, edited by John P. Hart and Christina Rieth, pp. 43-71.  New York State Museum Bulletin 496. The University of the State of New York, Albany.

2002b  Revisiting Mary Butler’s “Three Archaeological Sites in Somerset County, Pennsylvania” for Continuing Insights into Depression-era Archaeology in Southwestern Pennsylvania and Late Prehistoric Monongahela Social Organization. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 72 (2): 8-46.

2002c   The Later Prehistory of Meyersdale, Pennsylvania, and Its Surroundings.  North American Archaeologist 23 (4):281-307.

2003    Deliver Me From Mononga-Hell: Thinking Beyond the Culture History Paradigm to Examine the Temporal and Spatial Parameters of Somerset Monongahela Village Settlements.  Journal of Middle Atlantic Archaeology 19:37-58.

2005a  New Dates for New Deal Excavated Monongahela Villages in Somerset County.  Pennsylvania Archaeologist 75 (1):49-61.

2005b  New AMS Dates Challenge Our Understanding of the Later Prehistory of the Upper Ohio Valley.  PAC [Pennsylvania Archaeological Council] Newsletter 26:8-9.  Available on line at:

2005c  Late Woodland Villages in the Allegheny Mountains Region of Southwestern Pennsylvania: Temporal and Social Implications of New Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Dates.  Uplands Archaeology in the East VII and IX, edited by Carole L. Nash and Michael B. Barber, pp. 13-23.  Archeological Society of Virginia Special Publication 38-7.

2006a  Circular Reasoning: Drawing on Models of Ring-shaped Village Spatial Layouts To Examine Villages in Late Prehistoric Pennsylvania.  Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.

2006b  The social implications of a new method for estimating the number of residents within Monongahela houses from their floor areas. Journal of Middle Atlantic Archaeology 22: 31-50.

2007a  Circular Villages of the Monongahela Tradition.  The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.           

2007b  On the Application of Circular Statistics to Grave Orientations at Two Monongahela Village Sites.  Journal of Middle Atlantic Archaeology 23.  105-116.

Means, Bernard K. and Laura J. Galke

2004    Making a Future for the Past: New Dating Meets New Deal Archaeology.  Pennsylvania Heritage.  Winter.  30 (1):6-11. Available online at:

Murray, J. W.

1933    Depression Aids Archaeology at Athens, PA. The Pennsylvania Archaeologist 3 (5): 17-19.

Weslager, C.

1939    The Monongahela Woodland Culture of Western Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Archaeologist 9 (4):59-62


Available now from The University of Alabama Press: Circular Villages of the Monongahela Tradition.

Circular village of the Monongahela tradition book cover with illustration of a Monongahela village.Download book order form.

This new book presents a modern analysis of village sites excavated during the 1930s-era New Deal archaeology projects in Somerset County, as well as village sites uncovered in the 1970s and the 1990s near Meyersdale, also in Somerset County.  Each village site is studied in terms of its community pattern--how and why people organized their family dwellings in unique ways around their central plazas.  Radiocarbon dates were recently obtained from many of the New Deal excavated village sites and these are included  within this volume.  Researchers studying circular settlements in other parts of the world may also be interested in how circular villages of the Monongahela tradition were analyzed within this work.

This section of the Archaeology website was developed by Dr. Bernard K. Means based on his ongoing research into New Deal archaeology in Pennsylvania