Warnings And Communications Systems
Emergency Alert System (EAS)
“EMnet is the integral piece of our Homeland Security plan where Emergency Management Agencies partner together with Broadcast Stations to make our communities a safer place to live.”
Emergency Management Network (EMnet); Meeting the Needs of a Growing Community.
The Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency propelled Pennsylvania into a national leadership role in the advancement of the Emergency Alert System (EAS) by deploying a satellite based “EMnet EAS System” to county, television and radio stations with an FCC ‘city-of-license’ located in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Effective March 2003, PEMA’s Emergency Management Network became the primary delivery path for EAS distribution in Pennsylvania. The secondary EAS source path utilizes the fiber optic backbone of the Pennsylvania Public Television Network direct to regional LP-1/LP-2 affiliate facilities-who then relay the backup EAS network to applicable areas.
EMnet Basic Facts
EMnet currently has 362 terminals throughout the Commonwealth and is growing every day. PEMA continually strives to keep our communities safe, and EMnet will help us achieve this goal. Emergency situations occur each and every day and may require EMA and 9-1-1 Staff to inform the public and issue instructions for their protection and safety.
The primary goal of EMnet is to ensure the safety of our Communities during emergencies and disasters. The intention of purchasing a new system for Emergency Alert Activations was to specifically meet the needs of a growing Emergency Management Community. Our Communities rely on EMA’s and 9-1-1 Centers to get the word out in the event of an emergency. PEMA specifically requested a system that we could send messages to individual stations, groups, or all terminals and to have this system provide us with confirmation of delivery. This network has taken us to the next level away from the “Daisy Chain” style system.
EMnet is designed to meet what our EMA's and 9-1-1 Centers need most; a system that is fast, secure and reliable. It provides us the ability to communicate during emergencies where Emergency Activations are necessary. EMnet is the path to the future.
What is the difference between an EMnet and EAS Message?
An EMnet message is a text based message. These messages may include attachments and are sent from other EMnet stations which resemble “email” and; are the dominant form of communication on EMnet System among users. These are also the type of messages that are utilized for passing important information to Broadcast Media News Centers.
An EAS message is a text and audio message that is intended for rebroadcast to the public. The intention of the Emergency Alert System is to distribute warnings to the general public. EAS Activations are authorized when a “Loss of Life” or “Loss of Property” has occurred or is anticipated. The required threshold of either “an EAS-Short-Fused Response Requirement” or “An Emergency Event Affecting a Wide Area” has been met. The National Weather Service (NWS) or other Government Agencies can generate these messages.
EMnet has a platform that allows EAS messages to be originated, transmitted, and broadcast; however, it should be noted that the two message types are different and can be of different origins.
How does EMnet improve upon the Emergency Alert System (EAS)?
EAS messages are far too often conveyed verbally before being recorded for broadcast relay to another station, which may, after capturing the message, relay it again to yet another station. This process takes valuable time, which may again be delayed by volunteer broadcasters that may not rebroadcast the message immediately - or at all. There is also a loss of message clarity as it is recorded and relayed. There is no confirmation that the message was delivered and received by the next level in this ‘daisy chain’ style system. Compounding this process, the majority of the encoder-decoders used by broadcasters are not easily upgraded to meet ever-changing needs, including the addition of new codes to support such programs as Amber Alert.
Further, EAS is "audible only". It does not allow for the distribution of pictures that might accompany an Amber Alert, or even the URL of where to go to get such information. EMnet allows for direct-to-broadcaster transmission, forwarding of pictures, attachments, reports and other data, confirmation that the message was delivered to specific radio stations, and confirmation that the party in question broadcast the EAS message. EMnet also allows for the transmission of messages in languages other than English, to better serve citizens using Spanish, French and other language radio and television stations.
Points of Emphasis
EMnet currently has 362 terminals throughout the Commonwealth. 214 of those are Broadcast Stations and 62 are Cable Networks. PEMA also has the capability of monitoring the entire network to ensure 100% connectivity. Immediate attention to alert a station is provided in the event an EMnet terminal is offline and to provide trouble shooting and fault isolation. PEMA strives to improve our Emergency Management Agencies and 9-1-1 Centers working relationship with Broadcast Stations as well as the Cable Networks.
The staff here at PEMA is dedicated to achieve one common goal; "Keeping Our Communities Safe!" EMnet can help us to achieve this goal. In the event you experience technical problems, need training over the phone or have any questions, please contact the PEMA EAS Coordinator Scott Emrich at (717) 651-2729, or email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Thank you for your continued support and active participation in Pennsylvania's EAS Network!
“This has been a test of the Emergency Alert System!!”
SEVAN AND PaSTAR
In its role at Pennsylvania's primary warning point, the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency requires robust communications facilities to contact county and city government, its regional offices and other commonwealth agencies.
SEVAN, the Satellite Emergency Voice Alerting Network, and PaSTAR, its innovative, satellite-based data network, are part of the overall complement of tools the agency uses for warning and communications functions.
The voice 'side' of the satellite warning system allows PEMA, counties, regional offices and cities to communicate directly in real time regardless of the status of telephone systems. Warning messages are routinely broadcast by PEMA using this system. It is based on one of the constellation of statellites in geosynchronous Earth orbit and is online and available continously.
In its simplest form, PaSTAR -- the Pennsylvania Statewide Telecommunications and Alerting System -- is a computer network without wires. Using satellite-based technology and the latest computer server and client systems, the system allows data-sharing, reporting and textual and graphics communications to flow unimpaired between users connected to the system. At the core of PaSTAR are commercially-available computer server and email software packages widely used in internet communications.
For technical information on SEVAN or PaSTAR, contact Technical Services at (717) 651-2039. Operational information is available by contacting PEMA Operations at (717) 651-2001.
R.A.C.E.S. is a group of amateur radio operators who donate their services in time of natural disaster or emergency. They provide communication for fire, police and other agencies that need assistance.
Integrated Flood Observing and Warning System
Visit Pennsylvania's Automate Flow Warning System Page
PEMA, in accordance with a memorandum of understanding with the National Weather Service (NWS), operates and maintains a flash flood warning system in flood sensitive areas encompassing some 30 counties across the Commonwealth.
This system, known as IFLOWS, relies on radio reporting rain and stream gauges which provide rainfall and stream level data via radio and satellite to counties, the State Emergency Operations Center (EOC), PEMA Area Offices and the National Weather Service offices serving Pennsylvania. The IFLOWS system also provides an alarm feature for local and state/NWS use.
Actual rainfall is compared with NWS Flash Flood Guidance (FFG), and alarms are triggered at various preset levels related to the FFG. The IFLOWS computers at the county and all sites on the satellite network alarm with both an audible and a visual signal when rainfall or stream levels reach levels that can lead to flash flooding.
PEMA is provided with funds from the NWS/NOAA to operate and maintain the IFLOWS system through an annual Cooperative Agreement. At the present time, these funds are limited to life-cycle replacement or upgrading of existing equipment. No new county sites are being funded by NWS for this program due to funding constraints at the federal level.