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Archaeological Synthesis

A Synthesis of Pennsylvania Archaeology, Project Summary 9/2008

Purpose and Goals of the Series - to develop a synthesis of Pennsylvania archaeology in order to provide a cultural context for identifying the location of significant archaeological resources, their relative research contribution, and their eligibility to the National Register of Historic Places.  What is important to our understanding of past cultural behavior, and where is the information located?  State and federal agencies will use this document as guidance in determining the need for surveys, the eligibility of resources to the National Register of Historic Places, the need for “preservation in place,” and the nature of mitigation plans.  This project is a partnership with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation and will be used by their district archaeologists in making a variety of determinations.

Four volumes are planned.  Outlines of each volume are presented below.

Volume 1 - 15,000 Years of Native American Cultural Adaptations in Pennsylvania: A Context for Evaluating Native American Archaeological Resources

Volume 2 - Historic Euroamericans in Pennsylvania

Volume 3 - Lithics, Ceramics, Geomorphology, and Special Studies in Pennsylvania Archaeology

Volume 4 - Pennsylvania Archaeology - 15,000 years of Human Change 

The Archaeology of Pennsylvania

Volume 1 - 15,000 Years of Native American Cultural Adaptations in Pennsylvania: A Context for Evaluating Native American Archaeological Resources, Dr. Roger Moeller, editor

Review of Chapters

 1)        Introduction - Dr. K. Carr and Dr. J. Adovasio
A discussion of the purpose, compliance archaeology, the Pennsylvania Archaeological Site Survey files, and a summary of the significant research issues in relationship to the National register.

 2)        Evolution of the Environment - Dr. F. Vento and Dr. J. Schuldenrein
The evolution of flora, fauna, depositional environments, and climate from 18,000 BP to contact times.  The Vento/Rollins sequence will be used as a standard reference point.

 3)        Paleoindian in Pennsylvania - Dr. K. Carr and Dr. J. Adovasio
Statewide examination of pre-Clovis, fluted point sites and Late Paleoindian adaptations dating from 16,000 to 10,000 BP.

 4)        Early and Middle Archaic in the Ohio Drainage - Dr. J. Adovasio
An examination of the period between 10,000 and 6000 BP generally corresponding to the use of Early Archaic notched points, through sites with bifurcate base points and up until the Late Archaic Brewerton phase.

5)        Early and Middle Archaic in the Susquehanna and Delaware Drainages - Dr. C. Bergman and Dr. K. Carr
An examination of the period between 10,000 and 6000 BP generally corresponding to the use of Early Archaic notched points through sites with bifurcate base points and up until the Late Archaic Brewerton phase.

 6)        Late Archaic in the Upper Ohio Drainage - Dr. V. Cowin
An examination of the period between 6000 BP and 3000 BP generally corresponding to the Brewerton and Broadspear phases up until Early Woodland times (defined by Half-Moon Ware, Adena, and related manifestations).

 7)        Late Archaic in the Susquehanna Drainage - Dr. P. Miller
An examination of the period between 6000 BP and 3000 BP generally corresponding to the Brewerton Phase, Late Archaic stemmed points, and the Broadspear phases up until Early Woodland times.

 8)        Late Archaic in the Delaware Drainage - Dr. R. Moeller
An examination of the period between 6000 BP and 3000 BP generally corresponding to the Brewerton Phase, Late Archaic stemmed point, and the Broadspear phases up until Early Woodland times.

9)        Early and Middle Woodland in the Upper Ohio Drainage - Dr. M. McConaughy
An examination of the period from 3000 to 1000 BP including the Watson Phase and the use of domesticates.

10)       Early and Middle Woodland in the Susquehanna Drainage - Dr. R. Moeller
An examination of the period from 3000 to 1000 BP including the use of domesticates.

11)       Early and Middle Woodland (Including the Use of Domesticates) in the Delaware Drainage - Dr. R. Moeller
An examination of the period from 3000 to 1000 BP including the use of domesticates.

12)       Late Woodland Mahoning Phase and Late Prehistoric/ Early Historic Native Americans in the Upper Ohio Drainage: Monongahela - Dr. W. Johnson and B. Means
Including the development of horticulture, the emergence of village life, the demise of Native American culture, and some discussion of the research in adjacent states as appropriate.

13)       Late Woodland and Late Prehistoric/ Early Historic Native Americans in the Upper Allegheny and Lake Erie: Meade Island, Proto Erie, and McFate - Dr. W. Johnson and S.  Lantz 
Including the development of horticulture, the emergence of village life, the demise of Native American culture, and some discussion of the research in adjacent states as appropriate.

14)       Late Woodland in the Upper Susquehanna Drainage: Clemson Island and Owasco - Dr. R. Wall
 Including the development of horticulture, the emergence of village life, the demise of  Native American culture, and some discussion of the research in adjacent states as appropriate.

15)       Late Woodland in the Susquehanna, Juniata and Upper Potomac Drainages: Shenks Ferry, Wyoming Valley, Quiggle, Montgomery, Mason Island and Luray Complexes - J. Herbstritt 

16)       Late Woodland in the Delaware Drainage: Owasco, Oak Hill, Chance, Munsee, Overpeck, Minguannan and Townsend Phases - Dr. R. Moeller
Some discussion of the research in adjacent states is appropriate.

17)       Late Woodland/Early Historic Native Americans in the Susquehanna Valley: The Susquehannocks - Dr. B. Kent
Some discussion of the Maryland sites would be appropriate.

18)       The Contact Period and Native American Cultures in Pennsylvania - Dr. B. Kent
Including a discussion of “refugee cultures” and an ethnography of Native American cultures in Pennsylvania at the time of contact.

General Outline for Chapters

Definition of Time Period - and a general environmental description of the region. 

Theoretical Considerations and History of Research - including significant site reports, a general assessment of the database, and the theoretical orientation of this chapter.

Specific Environmental Concerns - especially environmental changes and/or geomorphological characteristics in the context of Vento’s reconstruction.

Material Culture and Technology - including diagnostic artifacts, lithic preferences, lithic technology, and whatever is available on ceramic or bone technology.

Community Patterning and Features - what is the nature of the analysis of horizontal artifact and feature patterning; what has been actually found and/or what is expected.

Subsistence - what has been actually found and/or what is expected.

Settlement Pattern - types of sites, their distribution, possible seasonal movements, missing data and an assessment of survey coverage.

Social Organization - group/band size, population dynamics and relative population density.

Changes/Evolution in Adaptive Strategy - internal changes within the time period in question.

Predictive Model for Site Locations - with sufficient detail to identify sensitive settings on USGS maps but not necessarily a GIS generated model.

Prioritization of Research Issues and Recommendations for Future Research - What are the significant research questions and where is the data located to solve these questions?  Include specific field and laboratory methods to be used  - i.e. what are the significant issues concerning the environmental reconstruction? material culture? technology? community patterning? subsistence? social organization?…. These research and managdment recommendations are the highest priority of this document.

Resource types eligible to the National Register of Historic Places - including a list of registration requirements for sites to be eligible to the National Register.

Bibliography - using the SAA format and a single list of references.

Volume 2-Historic Euroamericans in Pennsylvania, Dr. Roger Moeller, editor

Proposed Chapters (Chapter authors to be determined later)
Archaeological Research and Pennsylvania Culture
The Early Historic Period in Eastern Pennsylvania
The Early Historic Period in the Upper Ohio
French and Indian War Forts and the Frontier
Religious Toleration and Missionary Activity
Pennsylvania in the Revolutionary War Era
Significant Issues in Urban Archaeology
         Philadelphia
         Pittsburgh
Significant Issues in the Archaeology of the Civil War
Farmstead Archaeology
Historic Agricultural Sites in Eastern Pennsylvania
Historic Agricultural Sites in Western Pennsylvania
Transportation Sites-Lighthouses, Canals and Railroads
Industrial Sites and Industrial Archaeology-

Volume 3-Lithics, Ceramics, Geomorphology, and Special Studies in Pennsylvania Archaeology, Dr. Roger Moeller, editor  

Proposed Chapters (Chapter authors to be determined later)
Introduction
Genetic Stratigraphy
Geomorphology in the Delaware Valley
Geomorphology in the Susquehanna and Ohio Valleys
Chert Quarries and Sourcing in the Ridge and Valley*
Chert Quarries on the Appalachian Plateau*
Jasper Quarries and Sourcing in Pennsylvania*
The Rhyolite Quarries in Pennsylvania*
The Argillite Quarries in the Piedmont*
Lithic Resources in the Piedmont: Quartz, Quartzite and Steatite*
Lithic Analysis-Bipolar reduction
Lithic Analysis-Bifacial Reduction
Ceramics and Ceramic analysis in Pennsylvania
Experimental Archaeology
Floral and Faunal Analysis
Plowzone Archaeology
Predictive Models
The State of Archaeology in Pennsylvania
Native American perspective


*Suggested Outline for Lithics sections
Geologic description of material and formation
Overview of quarry research
Description of quarries
Distribution of material in Pennsylvania and the Middle Atlantic Region
Range of lithic reduction activities
Sourcing and fingerprinting

Volume 4 - Pennsylvania Archaeology - 15,000 years of Human Change

Proposed Chapters (Chapter authors to be determined later)
Anthropology, Archaeology and Archaeological Methods
The First Humans in Pennsylvania - Initial Discovery, Low Populations & Bio-diversity
The Archaic Period - Modern Environment, Population Growth, Forest Adaptation
The Terminal Archaic - Climatic Change, Cultural Adaptation. Cultural Elaboration 
Early and Middle Woodland - Intensive Foraging, Semi-sedentary
Late Woodland - Introduction of Farming
European Contact
Settling the Frontier
Urban Archaeology
Farmstead Archaeology
Industrial Archaeology
The Future and What the Reader Can Contribute