Montague site (36 So 4)
  Two men in suits look over the excavation in a field.

Edgar Augustine (center) directed most of the New Deal archaeology in Somerset County.

A crew of excavators working on Frank Montague's farm, located south of Somerfield along the Youghiogheny River, encountered the eponymous Montague village site. Initial testing of the Montague site was conducted in October and November 1934 as a CWA project with a crew of 30 men, under the supervision of Donald Cadzow, Pennsylvania state archaeologist. Edgar Augustine, supervisor for all subsequent WPA projects in Somerset County, completed excavation of the site from March to July 1936.  Of thirty-one dwellings excavated at the Montague site, five were located within a roughly oval palisade, and the remainder was located to its south.  Part of the palisade wall had eroded into the Youghiogheny River by the time of the site's excavation. The Montague site is currently under the waters of the Youghiogheny Reservoir.

Site Maps

  Montague site map illustrating pit features, recovered artifacts, and proximity to Youghiogheny River
Site map (Adapted from Mary Butler's 1939 Three Sites in Somerset County, Penna.)

Artifact Images
Montague chipped stone tools   Montague ceramic vessel fragments Montague ceramic vessels

Montague chipped

stone tools

Montague ceramic

vessel fragments

Montague ceramic vessels

Montague ceramic vessels Montague ceramic vessels Montague ceramic vessels
Montague ceramic vessels A Montague ceramic vessel A Montague ceramic vessel
Montague ceramic vessel fragments Montague ceramic vessel fragments Montague ceramic vessel fragments

Montague ceramic

vessel fragments

Montague ceramic

vessel fragments

Montague ceramic

vessel fragments

Montague clay and stone tobacco pipes Montague clay and stone tobacco pipes Montague ceramic vessel 

Montague clay (left) and

stone (right) tobacco pipes   

Montague clay (left) and

stone (right) tobacco pipes   

Montague ceramic vessels 
  Montague ceramic vessels resting on stone discoidals 

 

Montague ceramic vessels

resting on stone discoidals

 
 

 

References

Butler, Mary

 

     1936      Recent Archaeological Work in Southwestern Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Archaeologist 6 (3):55-58.

1939      Three Archaeological Sites in Somerset County, Pennsylvania.  Pennsylvania Historical Commission Bulletin 753.  Pennsylvania Historical Commission, Harrisburg.

 

Cadzow, Donald

 

1935a     The Pennsylvania Historical Commission's Work in  Somerset County.  The Pennsylvania Archaeologist 4 (4):10-12.

1935b     Recent Archaeological Work in Somerset County.  The Pennsylvania Archaeologist 5 (2):35-36.

 

Hart, John P. 

    1993      Monongahela Subsistence-Settlement Change: The Late Prehistoric Period in the Lower Upper Ohio Valley. Journal of World Prehistory 7:71-120. 

 

Means, Bernard K.

 

1998      Archaeological Past and Present: Field Methodology from 1930s Relief Excavations in Somerset County, Pennsylvania and its Relevance to Modern Archaeological Interpretations.  Journal of Middle Atlantic Archaeology 14:39-63.

            Available on line at: http://www.quemahoning.com/Somerset/BKMeans/WPA.htm

1999      Monongahela Mortuary Practices in Somerset County, Pennsylvania: Observations and Implications.  Pennsylvania Archaeologist 69 (2):15-44.

2002      Revisiting Mary Butler’s “Three Archaeological Sites in Somerset County, Pennsylvania” for Continuing Insights into Depression-era Archaeology in Southwestern Pennsylvania and Late Prehistoric Monongahela Social Organization. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 72 (2): 8-46.

2003      Deliver Me From Mononga-Hell: Thinking Beyond the Culture History Paradigm to Examine the Temporal and Spatial Parameters of Somerset Monongahela Village Settlements.  Journal of Middle Atlantic Archaeology 19:37-58.

2006       Circular Reasoning: Drawing on Models of Ring-shaped Village Spatial Layouts To Examine Villages in Late Prehistoric Pennsylvania. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.

2007       Circular Villages of the Monongahela Tradition   The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.

Site scenes

All photographs below date to 1934 or 1936. Click on the image for a larger photograph

WPA crew (and friends) at Montague
WPA crew (and friends) at Montague

Excavating at Montague
Excavating at Montague

Excavating at Montague
Excavating at Montague

Excavating at Montague with Canine assistance
Excavating at Montague with Canine assistance

Visitors view excavations at Montague
Visitors view excavations at Montague

Visitors view excavations at Montague
Visitors view excavations at Montague

Possible field crew (and friends) at Montague
Possible field crew (and friends) at Montague

Ceramic vessel in situ at Montague
Ceramic vessel in situ at Montague